The Basics of Liquidation

Liquidation is a process that marks the end of a business. It’s often a time of significant financial distress for everyone involved.

Whether liquidation is initiated voluntarily or court-ordered, understanding the basics of liquidation is essential for stakeholders, directors and creditors alike. Knowing how the system works greatly improves outcomes and can help you navigate a difficult situation.

This article dives into the fundamental principles of what is liquidation, its key concepts and procedures, and the order in which assets are distributed to creditors in Australia.

What is Liquidation?

Liquidation refers to the legal process by which a company is wound up and its assets are distributed to its creditors. This occurs when a company becomes insolvent, e.g. it is unable to pay its debts as and when they are due. At this point, the company directors or its creditors can decide to cease operations and sell off assets to satisfy the company’s financial obligations.

The primary goals of liquidation are to fairly distribute the company’s assets to its creditors, investigate potential misconduct by offices, and permanently close the business.

Liquidation is a complex legal process, and it is essential to follow the appropriate legal procedures and regulations in Australia. It’s also a very final solution to financial stress. We strongly recommend consulting a professional adviser to find out whether liquidation is right for your business. Alternatives may be available, and a simple conversation can improve the outcome for directors, employees, creditors and shareholders.

Voluntary vs Involuntary Liquidation

In Australia, the directors of companies have a responsibility to act in the business’ best interests. Part of this duty means keeping abreast of the company’s financial position.

If the directors become aware that the company is insolvent, or that it’s likely to become insolvent, there are two options for initiating liquidation:

  1. Voluntary Liquidation: This is initiated by the company’s directors and shareholders when they believe the company is insolvent, or that it’s likely to become insolvent in the future. If this is the case, company directors can meet and resolve to wind up the company, at which point they will appoint a liquidator.
  2. Court-Ordered Liquidation: This type of liquidation is ordered by the court when a company is insolvent. Court-ordered liquidation is usually initiated by a creditor that is owed money. It can also be initiated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). In court liquidations, the court will deny or grant the liquidation order, and appoint a liquidator to oversee the process.

What Does a Liquidator Do?

A liquidator is a licensed professional that is responsible for overseeing the liquidation process.

Their primary role is to wind up the affairs of the company and ensure that its assets are distributed in an orderly manner. The specific duties of a liquidator can vary depending on the type of liquidation (voluntary or court-ordered).

Some of the main tasks a liquidator performs include:

  • Controlling company assets: The liquidator is responsible for collecting, managing and protecting company assets.
  • Realising company assets: As the liquidator gathers company assets, they can begin the process of selling (realising) these assets. Money from the sale of assets is collected in a trust controlled by the liquidator.
  • Investigating the company’s finances: The liquidator will work with company officers to investigate its financial position. This is done to identify misconduct, fraud or unfair payment preferences. If an investigator finds evidence of illegal activity, the Australian Securities and Investment Commision (ASIC) may press charges.
  • Distributing funds to creditors: Once all assets have been sold, the liquidator will distribute money to the creditors (including employees and shareholders). Money is distributed in the predetermined order outlined below.
  • Managing creditor communication: Insolvent businesses often find themselves dealing with creditors. This can become overwhelming, and it adds a layer of stress and complication to managing a failing business. During the liquidation process, the liquidator is responsible for managing creditors and all communications from creditors. Creditors are unable to directly contact the debtor company during this time.

How Money is Distributed in Liquidation

The distribution of money in a liquidation in Australia follows a specific order as outlined in the Corporations Act 2001. The priority of payments in a liquidation typically occurs in this order:

  1. Secured creditors
  2. The costs and expenses of the liquidator
  3. Employee wages and superannuation
  4. Employee entitlements (such as annual leave)
  5. Employee retrenchment pay
  6. Unsecured creditors
  7. Shareholders

Not all liquidations involve making payments to secured creditors. In many cases, secured creditors have a right to repossess the assets over which they hold a security. Therefore, secured creditors can sell repossessed assets to recover their money without the need for liquidation. Secured creditors may choose to include their assets in the liquidation process, but this is rare.

In all other cases, money is distributed in the order above. Each category must be paid in full before the next category receives a payout. If a category can’t be fully paid, creditors are paid on a pro rata basis, and the following categories receive no payout.

Liquidation generally provides very low returns to creditors. Most creditors receive just a few cents on the dollar for every debt they hold. This means it’s often more cost-effective to allow a debtor to enter into voluntary administration so it can continue trading while making repayments.


The Importance of Witness Statements in Personal Injury Claims

When you’re involved in a personal injury case, the evidence you present is crucial to proving your claim. Among the most powerful pieces of evidence are witness statements. These accounts from people who saw the event can greatly influence the outcome of your case. Understanding these statements’ role can help you navigate through the legal process of a personal injury claim.

The Power of a Witness

Witnesses serve as critical players in the landscape of a personal injury claim. They offer an unbiased perspective on the incident, which can be a deciding factor in the absence of clear-cut evidence. Their testimonies can validate the sequence of events and often fill in gaps that the injured party’s account alone may not cover. Many law firms provide free personal injury legal advice at for those uncertain about the process to help you grasp the significance of witness statements and the best practices for securing them. A witness’s account can bolster your narrative, especially when the other party challenges your version of the events, adding a layer of objectivity that can be hard to dismiss.

Finding and Preserving Witness Testimonies

The moments following an accident or injury are often chaotic, but they are also a critical window for securing valuable witness testimony. Identifying potential witnesses—whether they are bystanders, fellow commuters, or even nearby shopkeepers—is a task that requires both promptness and tact. Collecting their contact information and taking down their initial impressions must be done with a sense of urgency, as the details are still vivid in their minds.

The permanence of these testimonies is safeguarded by transcribing them into written statements or capturing them via audio or video recordings. This step is crucial, as the fidelity of human memory is not infallible—it is susceptible to the erosive effects of time. Legal professionals can provide indispensable assistance in this process, ensuring that the collection of statements is conducted within the bounds of the law and with the necessary sensitivity and respect for those involved.

Witness Credibility

The influence of a witness’s statement is closely tied to their perceived reliability. Several factors come into play here, including their directness of observation, their relationship to the involved parties, and the consistency of their account over time. Legal counsel can critically assess the reliability of witnesses and prepare them for the scrutiny they might face during depositions or at trial. The goal is to ensure that their testimony stands up to rigorous examination and supports the truth of the claimant’s experience.

The Impact on Insurance Negotiations

Insurance adjusters are well-versed in the power of witness statements and often give them considerable weight when evaluating claims. A persuasive and credible witness can tip the scales in favor of a more substantial settlement offer. In contrast, the absence of such testimony can weaken a claim, making it more challenging to prove the full scope of the injury or the exact circumstances that led to the accident. Here, the strategic presentation of witness accounts can be a game-changer in the negotiation process.

Witness Statements During Trial

Should your personal injury claim proceed to trial, the statements and potential testimony of witnesses become even more pivotal. In the courtroom, the presence and demeanor of a witness, their delivery, and the content of their testimony can leave a lasting impression on a jury. Legal representatives play a crucial role in preparing witnesses for this environment, ensuring that their testimonies are conveyed effectively and resonate with the jury, thereby reinforcing the claimant’s case.

Challenges with Witness Statements

Despite their value, witness statements are not without their challenges. Witnesses may relocate, their memories may fade, or they might become uncontactable as time passes. At times, their accounts may even conflict with other pieces of evidence, creating a complex puzzle for legal teams to solve. It’s vital to have experienced attorneys who can navigate these issues, working diligently to uphold the credibility of your claim and counter any discrepancies that arise.

Witness statements are a critical component of personal injury claims. They can provide essential evidence and greatly influence the outcome of your case. From the moment an accident occurs, it’s important to consider the potential witnesses and gather their statements as soon as possible. Remember, the credibility and clarity of these statements can make or break your claim. If you’re unsure about the process, don’t hesitate to seek legal advice from a reputable law firm. With the right approach and legal support, witness statements can be the key to securing the compensation you deserve.


The Role of a Rhode Island Criminal Defense Lawyer in Ensuring Justice

When you think of a criminal defense lawyer in RI, you probably imagine someone out to prove their client is innocent. Technically, this isn’t their job. The primary role of a criminal defense attorney is not to prove innocence. In fact, this isn’t even needed because in the eyes of the law, the defendant is already presumed to be innocent. The role of a criminal defense lawyer is to protect their clients’ legal rights. An attorney does this by ensuring justice is served. They carry out various tasks in order to do so, which includes conducting legal research and filing motions with the court.

A Defendant’s Legal Rights

Defendants have various rights afforded to them in the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments of the US Constitution. These include, but are not limited to:

#1 The right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures: Without a warrant or probable cause, the police cannot search a person or their property or take someone into custody.

#2 The right to remain silent: People cannot be compelled to make any statements against themselves, preventing them from saying anything that could be self-incriminating.

#3 The right to confront witnesses: The defendant’s attorney can cross-examine witnesses, allowing the opportunity for the jury and judge to decide for themselves the credibility of the witness and believability of the statements.

#4 The right to a public trial: This protection ensures that the defendant’s proceedings are fair and prevents misconduct from occurring that would unfairly lead to a conviction.

#5 The right to be heard by an impartial jury: This right creates fairness by allowing the outcome to be determined by the community rather than one person who may act according to the commands of a higher authority.

#6 The right to counsel: Accused persons can choose to have an attorney represent them. If they cannot afford one, one will be appointed to them.

Ensuring Justice is Served

The prosecutor’s job is to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty of all elements of the alleged offense. If their job is to prove guilt, the defense attorney’s job is to prove innocence, right? Not quite. One may assume since the prosecutor presents evidence to prove guilt, the defense presents evidence to prove innocence. This is not quite how it plays out, though. A defense attorney instead demonstrates weaknesses in the prosecutor’s proof and lays bare how the prosecutor has failed to meet their burden. They don’t have to “prove” anything, but simply show the other side didn’t meet their burden of proof. By making well-thought-out arguments, the defense lawyer says that, if we follow the rules of law, a judge or jury cannot be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the alleged crime. Without this reasonable doubt, the judge or jury cannot convict the individual. The proof of their guilt hasn’t been met.

This is how justice is served, and it’s how all of us benefit. A defense lawyer’s duties play a crucial part in ensuring that there are no miscarriages of justice. Without a defense lawyer digging into the details of the arrest and scrutinizing the actions of the law enforcement officials during the investigation and the prosecutors during the trial, a person could be unjustly found guilty of a crime. This is bad for everyone who lives in this country.

Without criminal defense lawyers ensuring justice is served, authorities could introduce whatever evidence against the defendant, regardless of how it was collected or whether it was relevant, and send an innocent person to prison.


Nashville, TN, Truck Accidents: Who Are the Potential Defendants?

If you’ve been injured in an accident with a truck, your first priority is getting to safety and being assessed for any injuries. Due to these vehicles’ larger size and weight, you may face a long road to recovery: common injuries include broken bones, concussions, and even brain injuries or spinal cord damage.

Once you’ve been treated, it’s time to contact a Nashville truck accident attorney, who will explain your options and begin negotiations with your insurance company. If these fail or do not provide enough to cover your needs, however, you may need to take your case to trial. There are a variety of individuals and organizations that you can bring suit against, including the four we’ll discuss today.

Truck Driver

The most obvious potential defendant is the actual truck driver. Every driver has a duty of care to other motorists and their passengers on the road, and reckless driving breaches this contract, warranting a lawsuit. Alcohol and drug intoxication, distracted driving, speeding, or failure to signal before changing lanes can all have serious consequences for fellow drivers, which is only magnified by the sheer size of a truck. Should it be found that the truck driver acted irresponsibly by following too closely, swerving into your lane, or failing to respect traffic signals, then you can sue them for damages.

Trucking Company

Most truck drivers work for regional or national trucking companies, which have their own responsibilities to their workers. They must provide adequate breaks and rest times, set reasonable quotas that do not overtire their drivers, and ensure that their fleet is well-maintained to withstand the rigors of the road.

Companies that fail to provide for the well-being of their employees can also be found liable should one of their drivers get into an accident on the road. Still, it must be proven that their negligence was a contributing factor. For example, if they set unrealistic deadlines that require a driver to work overly long hours, causing fatigue that leads to a trucker falling asleep at the wheel, this may be grounds for a lawsuit. However, if they failed to fix a minor truck component that was irrelevant to the accident, this would be too shaky of a case for the lawyer to pursue. Evidence in this kind of case would include company policies, timesheets and quota information, and testimonies from other truck drivers.

Truck Manufacturer

Because truck manufacturers create incredibly large vehicles that have the potential to cause great destruction, they are held to strict standards regarding quality assurance. Design flaws, like an inadequate braking system, may lead to a truck driver inadvertently slamming into another vehicle on one of Tennessee’s treacherous mountain passes because they could not brake in time. Poorly designed mirrors that leave excessive blind spots may mean that a truck attempting to exit the highway could not see a smaller vehicle and sideswiped it, leading to major damage for the occupants. 

It can be difficult for a truck accident attorney to hold the truck manufacturer liable unless it could be specifically proven that a design flaw led to the accident, and that driver negligence or a trucking company’s failure to maintain their vehicles wasn’t a cause. A case against the manufacturer would require expert testimony by mechanics and engineers demonstrating a known issue with a certain truck model and clearly connecting it to the events that caused harm. 

Nashville Department of Transportation and Multimodal Infrastructure

In other cases, a combination of driver negligence and poor road conditions may allow the Nashville Department of Transportation to be sued. Shoddy road maintenance and bad signage can all contribute to an accident, things that are outside of the truck driver’s control. For example, there may have been a previous accident that was not adequately cleaned up. The truck’s tire was punctured by a piece of debris, leading the truck to swerve into the other lane and hit a car. This would be, in part, a failure of the Department of Transportation.

However, it’s important to note that truck drivers, like other commercial drivers, are held to a higher duty of care; they are expected to take every necessary precaution, especially in hazardous conditions. Nashville is unlikely to be held liable if acts of nature were a contributing factor, like a truck that lost control during a rainstorm: it would be expected that the trucker would have pulled over and waited for conditions to improve rather than drive on a slippery highway. 

Generally, a personal injury attorney will attempt to negotiate with insurance companies before bringing any suit, and they will pursue a suit against the likeliest defendants first. Regardless, if you are bringing a lawsuit due to a truck accident, you may find your lawyer seeking a settlement from one or more of these four defendants, each with varying levels of culpability for the accident. 


Comparing the Role of Debtors and Creditors

The business world runs on debt. The ability to borrow money allows companies to grow, but it carries major risks for everyone involved.

As a debtor, you’re expected to repay your debts on time. As a creditor, you have to accept the risk that a debtor won’t be able to pay. While there are options such as commercial debt collection, creditors are ultimately responsible for a large amount of risk that can dramatically alter how you do business.

In this article we’ll learn more about debtors and creditors, as well as their roles in debt arrangements.


Debtors are entities (including individuals and companies) that owe money to a third party (like a bank or lender). Debtors are more commonly called “borrowers,” but this term doesn’t apply in every situation. This is because debtors aren’t always borrowing money.

You are a debtor if you owe money, or if you have received goods and services that you haven’t paid for yet. For example, anyone who borrows money to buy a house or car is considered a debtor.

Similarly, you would be considered a debtor if you received a product before paying for it. This is especially common in the business world. In many industries, it’s normal for suppliers to provide raw materials and accept payment in instalments, or defer payment until a later date.


Creditors are entities (including individuals and companies) that have lent money to a third party. When you think of creditors you probably think of banks, but a creditor is anyone that has lent money, goods or services. For example, a creditor could be:

  • A traditional bank or lender
  • Materials suppliers
  • Service providers
  • Businesses
  • Friends and family members

There are no major legal distinctions to be made here. Regardless of who they are, a creditor has a right to the money they are owed. The only major difference is how the two types of debts are treated:

  • Secured debts – secured debts are a type of debt where the creditor holds a security interest over an asset (such as a car or home). The asset is held as collateral to ensure the debtor repays their debt. If the debtor doesn’t pay the debt, the creditor may be able to repossess and sell the asset to recover the money they are owed.
  • Unsecured debts – unsecured debts are a type of debt that isn’t subject to a security interest. Unsecured debts are things like credit cards and materials delivered prior to payment. This type of debt is a much bigger risk for creditors, and they often come with higher interest rates, shorter loan periods and more strenuous payment terms.

The Responsibilities of a Debtor

Debtors almost always have responsibilities to their creditors. In most cases, creditors provide money, goods or services in exchange for payment. The exact terms of the payment differ and are set out in an agreement between the debtor and creditor.

This contract forms the basis of the debtor’s responsibilities. Debt contracts usually set out:

  • Maximum loan terms
  • Repayment terms (frequency, amounts)
  • Interest rates and accruement periods
  • Security interests over assets
  • Break and establishment fees

As with other contracts, these are legally binding. Creditors may have a right to repossess secured assets or take the debtor to court to recover their money.

 Recovering Money from a Debtor

Getting money from debtors can be a challenge. Most people are honest and are happy to repay the money they owe. This means that debtors often stop paying because they’ve become unable to do so. If that happens, you have a few options for recovering your money:

  • Set up a payment plan – this is the most effective way to recover your money. Simply sit down with your debtor and renegotiate the terms of your deal. There is a good chance that extending the loan term, reducing repayment amounts, or reducing the interest rate will convince them to start making payments again.
  • Work with a commercial debt collector – some debtors simply won’t be able to pay their debts. In this case, you can work with a commercial debt collector. Debt collectors in Brisbane are experts in recovering money. Some collections agencies may purchase the debt (putting money in your pocket right away) and assume the responsibility for recovering the money. Others may operate on your behalf and take a commission from any money they do recover. Either option works and is effective for recovering debts.
  • Take legal action – as a creditor you have the legal right to your money. This can include taking your debtor to court. Suing a debtor can be a costly, time-consuming and complex experience, so it should not be your first port of call.
  • Apply for bankruptcy or liquidation – if you are owed more than $2,000 by a company, or $10,000 by an individual, you can apply to the court to make them bankrupt. During bankruptcy or liquidation, the debtor’s assets are liquidated and you are paid a portion of the proceeds. This is a very inefficient way to collect debt and should be considered a last resort.


Are Criminal Defence Lawyers Utilizing ChatGPT?

ChatGPT has been taking the world by storm; it seems like everyone from high school students to professional copywriters are using it to their advantage. As it turns out, criminal defence lawyers are also discovering what ChatGPT can do. This can be both a blessing and a curse, but when used properly, it can successfully reduce some of the busywork that goes along with being an lawyer. Of course, a top-notch criminal defence law firm won’t rely heavily on AI tools like ChatGPT; they’ll still bring their own expertise to bear for the vast majority of their work. Rather, they may recognize how it could apply to their needs, and use it in specific applications.

So, what could those applications be? These are some of the most common ones.

It can sort through documents

Part of a lawyer’s job involves sorting through huge volumes of documents in a search for relevant information. This can be extremely time-consuming, and it could get a little too easy to miss key details as a result of fatigue. Using ChatGPT is a great way to sort through any number of documents, whether they’re legal briefs, expert reports, or court opinions. Plus, it can also summarize lengthy documents into concise summaries.

However, this is only possible if the correct details are provided. ChatGPT results are only as good as the prompts it receives, so lawyers should be aware of how to use prompts correctly in order to get the most relevant results.

It can proofread

There are many different programs available to help with editing, proofreading, and even elevating the caliber of someone’s writing. As it turns out, ChatGPT is yet another tool that can be used for this purpose. Plus, users can request that the resulting text be fine-tuned to adhere to legal requirements and conventions, have a specific tone of voice, and so on. This can result in a document that’s not only more accurate, but also more coherent.

It can help structure a deposition

The structure of a deposition can have a significant influence on the outcome of a case, so lawyers are typically very careful in how they develop each one. ChatGPT can’t write a deposition from scratch, but it can provide multiple options for explaining facts, wording statements, and so on. The lawyer can then take those options, and choose the ones that make the most sense. Further tweaking will be required, but this is a helpful way to explore all the angles quickly and easily.

It can rewrite letters

Criminal defence lawyers write a large number of documents, including letters that are drafted on behalf of their clients. This can involve using a specific tone of voice, which may be difficult to achieve without a lot of time spent revising first, second, and third drafts. With the right prompt, ChatGPT is capable of taking any text and adapting it to the requested tone. Again, the results will have to be edited by the lawyer, but it’s definitely a useful time-saving technique.

It can help with research

This particular function is a double-edged sword for lawyers. ChatGPT can certainly speed up the research process, but it also shouldn’t be used as a search engine. This AI tool doesn’t necessarily aim for accuracy in its search results; it just responds with the answers it thinks you’re looking for. If a prompt is poorly written, an lawyer could end up with false information that could weaken their case.

That being said, there are still ways to use ChatGPT for research without having to worry about erroneous data. For example, an lawyer who’s trying to remember a specific case could plug in a few of the details, and find the exact case they were looking for. As always, it’s important to double-check the results that are generated by ChatGPT, just to be on the safe side.

It can make legal jargon more accessible for the jury

This could be done by the criminal defence lawyers themselves, but ChatGPT is also a viable option for simplifying legal jargon, as well as various complex issues. For example, it can be used to describe the emotional or psychological struggles of the defendant, which may mitigate the extent of their alleged crimes in the eyes of the jury. This not only makes the case more comprehensible, but also more impactful.

It can generate web content

ChatGPT is increasingly becoming popular for generating content for web pages, blog articles, video scripts, and more. It reduces the cost of producing this type of content, and it saves time as well. Plus, it’s easy to personalize the results to fit the law firm’s overall tone.

What are the limitations of ChatGPT for criminal defence lawyers?

Even though ChatGPT has its uses, it shouldn’t be relied on too heavily to do a lawyer’s job. It may be a valuable resource for generating text or performing research, but in this case, it’s absolutely vital for the results to be confirmed by an expert.

Why is this so important? Well, two New York-based lawyers, Peter LoDuca and Steven A. Schwartz, used ChatGPT to research cases that were related to their client lawsuit. Unfortunately, they failed to authenticate the results, and it turned out that the AI tool had fabricated legal cases to match their queries. This mistake resulted in not only a $5,000 fine, but also a fair amount of unwanted notoriety.

When it comes to criminal defence lawyers, it’s important to present the strongest possible case – something you need an actual lawyer for, not just an AI tool. Some defendants face jail time as a result of the criminal charges, and it would be terrible if over-reliance on ChatGPT weakened the defence’s case to the point of an unfavorable outcome.

There’s no doubt that ChatGPT has already earned its place among the research and writing tools that law firms use every day. As long as the users are aware of the tool’s limitations, using ChatGPT is a choice that’s both ethical and smart for criminal defence lawyers.


How to assess your financial literacy?

Financial literacy is a set of skills and knowledge that helps you not spend too much and increase your savings. These include budgeting, knowledge of credit and insurance products, managing money, paying bills correctly, investing, and saving. Learning financial literacy is important for every person to improve their standard of living. But if you have financial problems and need a payday loan, you can always use the services of a fast and reliable Payday Depot. Assessing your financial literacy is an important step in understanding your knowledge and skills in managing personal finances. Therefore, to have an understanding of whether you are managing money correctly, evaluate your financial literacy.

10 questions to assess financial literacy

To assess your money management skills, answer ten questions honestly. Be honest with yourself about areas in which you lack knowledge or skills. Identifying these weaknesses is the first step to improving your financial literacy.

  1. Do you keep a monthly budget that includes all major expenses and income?
  2. Are you taking steps to reduce debt and credit obligations?
  3. Do you know your credit score?
  4. Do you understand how much money you spend on average to live within 3-6 months?
  5. Do you have an emergency fund that will allow you to survive sudden major troubles without borrowing money?
  6. Do you know how compound interest works and the role it plays in investment growth?
  7. Do you understand what types of insurance will help you secure your finances and investments?
  8. Do you take advantage of tax deductions whenever possible?
  9. Do you pay your utility bills on time?
  10. Do you understand the difference between investments and insurance?

With these 10 questions, you can assess your current financial situation, as well as your level of financial organization and the steps you have taken to secure your financial future. Then you can compare your knowledge with financial concepts, learn basic financial concepts such as compound interest, diversification, credit scores, and investment strategies, and compare your understanding of these concepts with what experts consider essential knowledge for financial literacy.

What will help you assess your financial literacy?

First, consult a financial advisor. They can assess your financial knowledge while discussing your financial goals and make recommendations to improve your financial literacy. Second, discuss personal finances with friends, family members, or colleagues. Share your knowledge and learn from others. This can highlight areas where you may need more information. Third, monitor your financial behavior over time and see if you are making positive financial decisions and achieving your goals. This will give you a practical understanding of your financial literacy. Fourth, setting specific financial goals and working to achieve them can help you evaluate your financial literacy. If you can effectively set and achieve financial goals, it is a sign of your financial competence.

Not everyone is trained in financial literacy, so it’s okay if you find gaps in your knowledge. The key is to take steps to fill these gaps by educating yourself, seeking advice, and being proactive in managing your finances. Keep learning about personal finance as it is a skill that can have a significant impact on your financial well-being.


4 Best Undergraduate Majors for Law School

Law school is among the most prestigious educational institutions because of its direct impact on society. Before seeking admission into law school, an undergraduate must decide on the right major. There’s no perfect major for law undergraduates. However, some offer a better starting point to conquer the rigorous academic session.

Are you confused about the undergraduate major to choose for law school? Lucky for you, this piece will explore the best undergraduate majors for law school and discuss how they can shape a successful legal career.

Let’s begin!

Political Science

A political science major comes as a natural choice for many aspiring lawyers. Why? Political science has many similarities with the study of law because of its focus on government structures, political systems, and legal frameworks.

This major teaches undergraduates worldwide, including those at Nebraska Christian colleges, how most laws were formulated and implemented and the challenges they created. Furthermore, this course activates critical thinking, research, and argumentation in undergraduates, which are vital attributes of any good lawyer.

More often than not, graduates with a political science background choose careers in:

  • Government
  • Policy analysis, or
  • Public interest law.


History is another excellent choice for law school undergraduates. While it may not seem like an obvious choice, there’s plenty to learn from it. Simply put, History is the study of change over time – usually since the start of human civilization.

Law, on the other hand, is deeply intertwined with historical events and precedents. A history major will develop your research and analytical skills as you navigate the evolution of rights, laws, and legal systems.

A good knowledge of history can be an ace in the hole when dealing with cases that require sound historical knowledge. Lawyers with a history background often choose careers in civil rights or international law.


Philosophy is the next major for law graduates to consider, and there are reasons to support this. Law was founded on a philosophical background because it addresses questions about justice, morality, and ethics.

A philosophy major endows law undergraduates with critical thinking and ethical reasoning. Students are taught to analyze complex issues, create meaningful arguments, and treat issues from multiple perspectives.

You’ll gain skills that can help you advance in your law practice, especially when treating problems relating to:

  • Ethics
  • Jurisprudence, and
  • Legal theory.

English or Literature

The best lawyers are renowned for their strong written and communication skills. That’s why an English or Literature major is a sensible choice. This major teaches students to become masters of English Language and Communication.

A deep understanding of Literature or English benefits undergraduate lawyers because they learn the concepts of persuasive writing and clear communication. An English and Literature major will be an expert in legal writing, research, and advocacy.

Aside from law school, an English major also equips you for careers in:

  • Legal journalism
  • Editing, and
  • Becoming a trial lawyer.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I Major in Any Subject Before Applying to Law School?

Yes, you can major in any subject before applying to law school. While some undergraduate majors, like political science or philosophy, may provide a strong foundation, law schools accept students with diverse backgrounds. The key is demonstrating critical thinking, analytical skills, and a solid academic record.

Are There Specific Undergraduate Majors That Increase My Chances of Getting Into Law School?

Law schools don’t require specific undergraduate majors. However, majors in political science, history, philosophy, economics, or STEM fields can enhance your understanding of legal concepts. Ultimately, admissions committees look for well-rounded applicants with vital academic records and a demonstrated passion for the law.

Can I Change My Major in Undergrad if I Decide to Pursue Law School Later?

Yes, you can change your major if you decide to pursue law school later. Law schools value diversity in undergraduate backgrounds. It’s essential to maintain a strong GPA and engage in activities that showcase your aptitude for legal studies, even if your major shifts away from traditional pre-law fields.


The best undergraduate major for law school depends on your interests and career goals. There’s no one-size-fits-all answer, and diverse fields can prepare you for success in the legal world. Ultimately, the most important thing is to select a major you’re passionate about that equips you with the skills and knowledge you need for a rewarding legal education and a successful legal career.


Protecting Your Personal Assets: The Legal Aspects of Personal Guarantees

When starting or running a business, you may be asked to sign a personal guarantee for a business loan or line of credit. While this can provide needed capital, it also puts your assets at risk if the business defaults. Understanding how personal guarantees work is key to protecting yourself.

What Exactly is a Personal Guarantee?

A personal guarantee is a legally binding contract where an individual agrees to repay a business debt if the business itself cannot. For lenders, guarantees provide an extra layer of security that the loan will be repaid. As the guarantor, you are “co-signing” for the business by putting your net worth and assets on the line.

How Personal Guarantees Attach to Assets

Signing a guarantee gives creditors access to your personal assets if the business defaults. This includes bank accounts, investment accounts, real estate, and other valuables. Creditors can seize assets or garnish wages to settle unpaid debts.

Limiting the Scope of Guarantees

Before signing, request limitations to minimize risk. For example, ask that the guarantee decrease over time as the business grows. You may also seek to cap the guarantee at a percentage of business ownership. While lenders may push back, it’s worth negotiating terms.

Asset Protection Planning

Once signed, transfers of assets to protect them from creditors may be deemed fraudulent. However, some options like trusts and LLCs set up before signing the guarantee have a better chance of holding up.

Releasing Guarantees

Some lenders may release guarantees if the business meets certain milestones or pays down debt. Be sure to understand available options to be released from liability in the future.

Personal Loans with a Cosigner

For personal loans with a cosigner, having one with good credit helps you qualify if your credit is limited. However, cosigners share legal responsibility for repaying the debt. Both your credit scores suffer if payments are late.

Evaluating Overall Risks and Rewards

Before committing personal assets, carefully weigh the risks and rewards. Be realistic about the likelihood of business success and loan repayment. Understand exactly what you are putting at stake before signing anything.

While personal guarantees are risky, they may provide the funding needed to start or expand a business when other options aren’t available. Taking steps to limit liability and protect assets can help minimize exposure. Above all, avoid signing a guarantee unless you fully grasp the legal implications.

Consulting Professionals Before Signing

Given the gravity of personal guarantees, it’s wise to consult professionals before signing anything. An attorney can review the guarantee agreement and help negotiate favorable terms. A financial advisor can analyze the overall risks to your assets and net worth. An accountant can assess the business’ finances and capacity to repay debt.

While their services cost money upfront, the insights gained can prevent much larger losses later. Professionals may identify risks or alternatives not readily apparent to business owners caught up in expansion plans. They can also advise on asset protection strategies, insurance options, and contingency plans.

At minimum, discuss guarantees in depth with your legal, financial and tax advisers beforehand. Ask lots of questions and understand all possible outcomes. Educate yourself on the implications so you don’t unwittingly put your family’s livelihood and retirement at risk. While guarantees provide access to capital, make sure you enter them with your eyes fully open.


Personal guarantees legally attach personal assets to business debts. This risk can be reduced through negotiating terms, asset protection planning, and understanding options to end liability over time. When used with eyes wide open, guarantees can provide business capital despite credit challenges. However, they should not be entered into lightly.


Understanding At-Will Employment: Your Rights As An Employee

In the landscape of employment, it’s crucial for employees to understand the nuances of their employment agreements, especially when it comes to “at-will” employment. This term, though commonplace within the U.S. job market, often generates confusion and concerns among workers. Knowing your rights under this arrangement is the first step towards ensuring you are treated fairly in the workplace.

Here, we delve into the critical aspects of at-will employment and discuss what it means for you as an employee.

What Is At-Will Employment?

At-will employment refers to an employment arrangement in which either the employer or the employee can terminate the relationship at any time, with or without cause, and with or without notice. This model is designed to offer flexibility but can sometimes leave employees feeling vulnerable. Despite its open-ended nature, there are legal constraints to protect employees from unjust treatment. For instance, an employer cannot dismiss someone on grounds that violate anti-discrimination laws.

Additionally, if you face termination or consequences due to false accusations, such as defamation of character at work, legal remedies can often be pursued. Understanding that at-will does not mean “at whim” can empower employees to recognize and challenge unlawful treatment.

Discrimination Is Not Permissible

Under federal law, employers cannot terminate or treat you unfairly based on race, gender, religion, national origin, disability, age (if you are 40 or older), genetic information, or sexual orientation.

These protections are your right, and they supersede at-will employment. If you suspect that you have been a victim of discrimination, it’s imperative to consult with an employment lawyer or contact the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). They can guide you through the process of potentially filing a claim.

Retaliation Is Illegal

If you exercise a legal right, such as filing a workplace safety complaint, taking FMLA leave, or reporting illegal activities (whistleblowing), your employer cannot legally retaliate against you. This protection means they cannot demote, terminate, or take other negative actions to punish you for upholding your legal rights.

Employees often fear repercussions in at-will positions; however, laws against retaliation are robust and provide substantial protections.

Implied Contracts Can Override At-Will Policies

Sometimes, an employer’s actions or words can create an implied contract, even if unintended.

For example, if your employer assures continued employment or follows a disciplinary procedure that suggests you’ll only be terminated for cause, these may constitute an implied contract.

Such scenarios can override the at-will policy, giving you additional job security. Documenting these instances can be incredibly beneficial if your rights need to be defended.

Your Right To Fair Compensation

At-will status does not affect the legal requirement for employers to pay for the work done. Regardless of your employment status, you must receive at least the minimum wage, plus overtime (where applicable). If you’re dismissed, you are still entitled to your final paycheck promptly, including compensation for unused vacation days if the company’s policy includes payment for accrued time off.


Navigating the complexities of at-will employment can be challenging, but understanding your rights helps ensure you’re treated lawfully and fairly. Remember, while at-will employment offers employers certain freedoms, it does not permit them to contravene federal laws regarding discrimination, retaliation, and fair compensation.

If you find yourself in a precarious situation or are uncertain about your employment rights, don’t hesitate to seek legal counsel or assistance from a worker’s rights organization. Being informed and proactive is your best defense in the workforce environment.