Ingrid Y Chen

Leaders in Law endorses Ingrid Chen as our exclusively recommended Corporate Law expert in Taiwan. If you wish to get in touch with Ingrid please use the contact information provided above.

Ingrid is the Partner of DTT Attorneys-at-Law and specialises in corporate investments, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital market, banking, securities and insurance law and compliance, and general corporate matters.  She has assisted reputable domestic and foreign companies in accomplishing onshore and offshore investments and M&A transactions, advised clients on the PRC outbound and inbound investment regulations and assisted cross-border companies to obtain Taiwan related approvals.  She also actively participates in the capital market area, representing multiple foreign issuers to raise funds, list their shares on TWSE/TPEx and issue TDRs in Taiwan as well as IPO on HKEX and the PRC.  Ingrid Chen is also familiar with banking, securities and insurance laws and regulations and has assisted clients in compliance and regulatory filings.

Firm Overview

DTT Attorneys-at-Law has the experience and multidisciplinary capability to provide a wide range of professional services to help companies meet their objectives comprehensively, with skilled and experienced lawyers working together with other Deloitte professionals in audit and assurance, tax, risk management advisory, consulting, and financial advisory to guide our clients through a project in a coordinated way.

DTT Attorneys-at-Law team members came from top law firms in Taiwan, having considerable experience in local and transnational consultation and negotiation. In our legal team, we have lawyers with Taiwan bar admissions, all graduated from first-rate domestic and international law schools. Our practice ranges from tax controversy resolution, M&A, general civil and administrative law practice, and employment and pension laws, to various specialised services such as regulatory compliance planning for businesses. Our tax controversy resolution covers almost every type of tax dispute that businesses and individuals in Taiwan have experienced and our M&A practice has advised many investors seeking opportunities in the East Asian countries, including services related to mergers, convertible securities, share transactions, M&A, joint ventures, company reorganisations, corporate split-up and strategic alliances, IPO, privatisation, and group re-organisation. In addition, we offer regulatory compliance planning services to assist many regulated businesses set policies and risk management plans in accordance with statutory requirements of the laws such as the Personal Information Protection Act and the Money Laundering Control Act.

As part of the Deloitte Legal global network with over 2200 legal professionals in more than 81 countries around the globe and 17 lawyers in two offices throughout Taiwan, DTT Attorneys-at-Law is able to offer competent yet pragmatic advice in many fields of national and international business laws, whether for family-owned private companies, start-up companies, listed companies or international group companies. Collecting and combining multidisciplinary expertise in our Industry Groups, i.e., Banking & Securities, Energy & Resources, Manufacturing, Consumer Business, TMT and Real Estate enables us to render interdisciplinary advice which anticipates industry- or sector-specific trends and developments and thereby help our clients face the challenges of an ever-changing regulatory and economic environment.

We understand legal advice not as an isolated component, but as an important contributing factor to a comprehensive solution of the issues that our clients face. Working together with other Deloitte professionals, we help our clients make decisions by taking into consideration legal as well as entrepreneurial, tax and other business aspects, and provide a “one-stop service” for our clients.

 

Jaclyn Tsai

Jaclyn Tsai has a great deal of experience not only in private sector but also in public sector. She currently serves as the Chairperson of Taiwan Fintech Association. She specializes in fintech laws and regulations with a focus on blockchain technology and the self-regulation of initial coin offerings. Ms. Tsai is one of the promoters of the Global ICO Transparency Alliance and the Taiwan Crypto Blockchain Self-Regulatory Organization. She is now also the Chairperson of Taiwan Women On Boards Association.

In 2013, Jaclyn was invited to serve as the Minister without Portfolio in the Executive Yuan (Cabinet) and became one of the few female ministers in the government. During her term as Minister without Portfolio, she took responsibilities mainly in areas of cross-ministries affairs, e.g. the accommodation of laws and regulations relating to virtual world development, e-commerce, shared economy, digital convergence, startup environment, open data.

In addition, Jaclyn previously served as a District Court judge, and then worked at IBM as the General Counsel in Greater China. She founded Lee, Tsai & Partners in 1998 and specializes in technology law, M&A and investment matters.

EXPERIENCE

  • Minister without Portfolio, Executive Yuan(Cabinet) (Nov. 7, 2013 – May 19, 2016)
    -Convener, Virtual World Law Adjustment Taskforce, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
    -Convener, E-commerce Development Taskforce, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
    -Deputy Convener, Innovation and Startups Taskforce, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
    -Convener, Mobile Broadband Service and Industry Development Taskforce, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
    -Deputy Convener, National Information and Communications Initiative Committee, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
    -Member, Open Data Advisory Taskforce, Executive Yuan(Cabinet)
  • General Counsel of IBM Greater China Group (China, Hong Kong, Taiwan) (1996 – 1998)
  • General Counsel of IBM Taiwan(1991-1996)
  • Judge of Taipei, Shih-Lin, Taoyuan and Chang Hwa District Courts(1982-1991)

POLICIES AND PLANS PROPOSED AS MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO

– FinTech
* Promoted the development of FinTech business opportunities in Taiwan
* Participated in the legislative development of the Financial Technology Innovation Experimentation Act

– vTaiwan Virtual World Law Adjustment Forum
* Worked with g0v volunteers in establishing the “vTaiwan Virtual World Law Adjustment Taskforce” forum to promote harmonization and accommodation of         current laws as applied in virtual world contexts so that the quality of how policies are established and amendments are made is improved, thereby accelerating the promotion process.

– E-Commerce
* Strong push for e-commerce related laws and industrial development policies.
* Worked on reviewing and promoting the Regulations Managing Electronic Payment Institutions (third party payments) for successful passage into law.

– The Addition of Dedicated Provisions for “Closed Companies” in the Company Act

– Promoted “Entrepreneur Visas”

– Promoted Allowing Equity-Based Private Crowdfunding

– Promoted Policies Allowing More Hiring of Skilled Foreign Workers in Taiwan

 

Lu-Fa Tsai

Current position: Partner

Practice area/industry focus: Intellectual property rights, international investment, general laws

Career highlights: 

Mr. Lu-Fa Tsai, an attorney-at-law graduated from the Department of Law of National Taiwan University (NTU), which is the best law school in Taiwan. Out of the interest in business law, he attended the Graduate Institute of Law of NTU after he had obtained the LL.B. degree and received his LL.M. degree after 3 years. One year before he graduated from the graduate institute, he passed the bar examination. Mr. Tsai has also gained an LL.M. degree from the Faculty of Law of the University of Göttingen in Germany. The field of study of this degree is international economic law. After he came back from Germany, he joined the Deep & Far Attorneys-at-Law. He is working as a partner lawyer at the firm currently.

Publications:

  1. Tsai, Lu-Fa (2018). Trade Marks 2018, Chamber and Partners, https://practiceguides.chambersandpartners.com/practice-guides/trade-marks-2018/taiwan;
  2. Tsai, Lu-Fa; Tsai, Yu-Li; Tsai, C.F. (2018). Copyright 2018, Chamber and Partners, https://practiceguides.chambersandpartners.com/practice-guides/copyright-2018/taiwan;
  3. Tsai, Yu-Li; Tsai, Lu-Fa (2018). Copyright 2018, The International Comparative Legal Guide, https://iclg.com/practice-areas/copyright-laws-and-regulations/taiwan#;
  4. Tsai, Yu-Li; Tsai, Lu-Fa (2018). Pharmaceutical Advertising 2018, The International Comparative Legal Guide, https://iclg.com/practice-areas/pharmaceutical-advertising-laws-and-regulations/taiwan;
  5. Tsai, Yu-Li & Tsai, Lu-Fa (2014). A practical cross-border insight into copyright law, Chapter 20 Taiwan. The International Comparative Legal Guide to: Copyright 2015 Edition, 1, 111-116.

Christopher Kao

Leaders in Law endorses Christopher Kao as our exclusively recommended Commercial Litigation Law expert in Taiwan. If you wish to get in touch with Chris, please use the contact information provided above.

Chris Kao is based in Pillsbury’s San Francisco and Silicon Valley offices, where he focuses on intellectual property and complex commercial litigation. Chris is the co-leader of Pillsbury’s Taiwan practice.

Chris is an experienced first-chair trial lawyer representing technology companies in patent, copyright, trademark and trade secrets litigation, and other high-stakes commercial disputes. He has represented companies in the computer hardware and software, semiconductor, telecommunications, biotechnology, and consumer products industries in federal and state courts throughout the country, the U.S. International Trade Commission, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. He has extensive experience litigating Covered Business Method and inter partes review proceedings before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Chris also regularly advises clients on privacy and cybersecurity issues and is designated a Certified International Privacy Professional/US by the IAPP.

Before joining Pillsbury, Chris was the Office Managing Partner of another firm’s Silicon Valley office.

Firm Overview:

Pillsbury is an international law firm with a particular focus on the technology & media, energy, financial services, real estate & construction, and travel, leisure & hospitality sectors. Recognized by legal research firm BTI Consulting as one of the top 20 firms for client service, Pillsbury and its lawyers are highly regarded for their forward-thinking approach, their enthusiasm for collaborating across disciplines and their unsurpassed commercial awareness. That’s how we have achieved the 13th-highest percentage of Chambers-ranked lawyers among all AmLaw 100 firms.

Dr. Hsiwen Lo

Leaders in Law endorses Dr. Hsiwen Lo as our exclusively recommended Patent Litigation Law expert in Taiwan. If you wish to get in touch with Dr. Lo please use the contact information provided above.

Hsiwen Lo, Ph. D., is a patent litigator in Orrick’s Intellectual Property Group. With a Ph. D. in electrical engineering, Hsiwen specializes in cases where a deep understanding of the interplay between technology and legal issues is critical to a company’s litigation success.

Hsiwen’s representations involve highly-complex technologies, sciences, and mathematics. Exemplary subject matters include mobile digital processing and publication, three-dimensional graphics rendering, the instruction pipeline of a processor, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), HDL synthesis and verification, and finite-element analysis of mechanical stress and strain.

Hsiwen has conducted invalidity, non-infringement and infringement analysis. He has handled discovery, drafted expert reports, prepared technical witnesses for deposition, and drafted dispositive and non-dispositive motions. Moreover, he has been involved in case management. He also advises his clients of issues related to patent portfolio management, IP transactions, and IP-related due diligence review. He has passed the patent bar exam.

Hsiwen received his Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering at Caltech. While in Berkeley Law, he focused on patent and intellectual property law. He was the community service chair for Berkeley APALSA. He was also the student liaison and long-time volunteer of the Asian Law Caucus immigration clinic. He received the American Jurisprudence Award.

Firm Overview:

We focus on serving the Technology, Energy & Infrastructure and Finance sectors globally. Clients worldwide call on our teams for forward-looking commercial advice on transactions, litigation and compliance matters. We bring distinctive quality, teamwork and value to the table – and innovate in everything we do.

 

Justin Chen

EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATION EMBA Candidate, National Taiwan University College of Management
LL.M., Tohoku University, Japan (2005)
LL.B., National Taiwan University School of Law, Taiwan (1997)
Admitted to Bar, Taiwan (1999)
Qualified Patent Agent, Taiwan (1999)
EXPERIENCE Author, On the Governing Law of Transnational Factoring (2007)
Author, Comparisons of the Constituent Act of the Intellectual Property High Court of Japan and the Intellectual Property Court of R.O.C. (2007)
Author, Legal Implications of the “Probationary Period” (2006)
Co-Author, To Employ, Contract, or Engage?: On the Nature of Labor Contracts (2006)
Author, Restriction on Moral Rights by the Contract: Focus on the Effect and Margin of Copyright Law (LL.M. Thesis)
PUBLICATIONS Foreign Legal Affairs Attorney in Japan (Taiwan Laws & Regulations)
Member, Asian Patent Attorneys Association (APAA) Taiwan Group
Interpreter, Miyagi Prefecture Police Station, Japan (2004)

Clarice Chen

Leaders in Law endorses Clarice Chen as our exclusively recommended IP Law expert in Taiwan. If you wish to get in touch with Clarice, please use the contact information provided above.

Specialism:

–Chemical/biotech field Patent Prosecution (including but not limited to chemistry, chemical engineering, polymer, material science, semiconductor, pharmaceutics, biotechnology, life science and agriculture), Trademark Registration, Invalidation, Infringement Analysis, Portfolio Management, and Litigation

Education:

–National Taiwan University (MS and BS in Chemical Engineering)

–Franklin Pierce Law Center, Research in Intellectual Property (IPSI & ALI)

–Shih Hsin University (MS in Law)

Professional Positions:

–Patent Attorney (1997~)

–Trademark Agent (2005 ~)

–Editor for Taiwan area of “Manual for the Handling of Applications for Patents, Designs and Trademarks throughout the World” (“The Brown Book”) (2005 ~)

–Educator assigned by the National Taiwan Intellectual Property Training Academy (TIPA) for delivering course “Practice of and Guidelines for Patent Application Procedures“ to the instructors and advisors of TIPA (2005 ~)

–Educator assigned by the National Taiwan Intellectual Property Training Academy (TIPA) for delivering course “Practice of and Guidelines for Patent Application Procedures (Advanced)“ to the instructors and advisors of TIPA (2009 ~)

–Patent Counselor Assigned by Taiwan Intellectual Property Office for providing pro bono patent services (1998~)

Experiences:

–Review for the Counselor of Lee & Li Attorneys-at-Law Passed (2004)

–Principal (2003-2004), Deputy Principal (2002) in Patent and Technology Department of Lee & Li Attorneys-at-Law

–Senior Patent Attorney (1990-2005.3) in Patent and Technology Department of Lee & Li Attorneys-at-Law

Lecturers:

– “How to prepare and handle patent infringement litigation”, Chang Chun Group

– “Patent Protection of Biomedicals and Its Relationship to Clinical Trial“, China Medical University, Taiwan

– “Patent Protection of Novel Technology”, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

–“Patent Protection, Limitation and Extension,” 7th Pan Pacific Symposium on Stem Cells and Cancer Research (PPSSC)

–“Protection, Limitation and Infringement of Biotechnology Patent in Taiwan,” 6th Pan Pacific Symposium on Stem Cells and Cancer Research (PPSSC) in conjunction with the 1st Biotechnology Industry Forum of Hsinchu Biomedical Science Park

–“Patent Infringement and Design Around,” Industrial Development Bureau, MOEA (invited by Medical and Pharmaceutical Industry Technology and Development Center)

–“Principles of Patent Infringement Assessment, Design Around and Case Studies,” Ministry of Education (invited by China Medical University)

–”Introduction of Patent-Related Provisions,” Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)

–”Patent Prosecution Practice and Procedures,” Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)

–“How to prosecute patents quickly and cost-effectively at Taiwan’s IP office,” IP Forum 2009, Managing Intellectual Property

–“Pharmaceutical Patents and Cases,” Roche Products Ltd., Taiwan

–“Patent Infringement Litigation,” Taipei Biotech Association

–“Patent Infringement and Related Examples Analysis,” Taipei Biotech Association

–“Patent Infringement Analysis,” Pharmaceutical Industry Technology and Development Center

–“Administrative Remedy Proceedings,” Chinese National Federation of Industries

–“Patent Invalidation Practice and Procedure and Related Administrative Remedy Proceedings,” Chinese National Federation of Industries

–“Practice of and Strategy for Invalidation Actions,” Chinese National Federation of Industries

–“Patent Prosecution Practice and Procedures,” Chinese National Federation of Industries

–Advanced Patent Practice Training Seminar sponsored by Chinese Society of Inventions

–“Patent Law and Related Regulations,” China Industrial & Commercial Research Institute

–“Filing Patent Applications and Tips for Drafting Patent Specifications” Taiwan Economic Development & Research Academy

–“Patent Law and Methods and Practices for Enforcing Patent Rights,” China I

–”Successful Opposition and Cancellation Actions,” Tze-Chiang Foundation of Science & Technology

–”Patent Opposition/Cancellation Practice and Procedure and Related Administrative Remedy Proceedings,” Chinese National Federation of Industries

–“Procedures for Patent Administrative Remedy,” National Taiwan Intellectual Property Training Academy (TIPA)

–“Strategy of Filing Patent Worldwidely,” National Chung-Hsing University Technology Transfer Center

–“Patent Examination Guidelines,” Feng-Chia University, Technology Transfer Center

–“Patent Systems and Related Provisions and Practices,” National Central University

–“Tips of New Patent Law,” Feng-Chia University, Technology Transfer Center

–“Technology and Patent-Related Provisions,” Yuan-Ze University, Executive Master of Business Administration

–“Introduction of Patent Law,” Kwan-Wu Institute of Technolgy

–“Introduction of Intellectual Property Rights,” Van-Nung Institute of Technology

Publications:

–Textbook entitled “Practice of and Guidelines for Patent Application Procedures“ for TIPA (2005)

–Textbook entitled “Practice of and Guidelines for Patent Application Procedures (Advanced)” for TIPA (2009)

–Study on Patent Term Extension System (I), June 2008, Intellectual Property Right Journal (published by the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office)

–Study on Patent Term Extension System (II), July 2008, Intellectual Property Right Journal (published by the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office)

 

Trent Jackson

Leaders in Law endorses Trent Jackson as our exclusively recommended Accounting Services expert in Taiwan. If you wish to get in touch with Trent please use the contact information provided above.

I currently work as Manager of the international service desk at Grant Thornton Taiwan, helping international clients in need of bookkeeping, tax, advisory, payroll, corporate secretarial, audit, and other services. Previously I graduated from Brigham Young University with a BA in Chinese, and am fluent in Mandarin. I currently live in Taiwan and plan to stay here permanently. My professional interests include international business, accounting, translation, language acquisition, photography, and writing.

Firm Description

Grant Thornton is a leading business adviser that helps dynamic organisations to unlock their potential for growth. Our brand is respected globally, as one of the major global accounting organisations recognised by capital markets, regulators and international standards setting bodies.

Over the last three years we are the fastest growing large accounting organisation and we are constantly evolving and developing alongside our clients’

Global scale and agility

As a $4.7bn global organisation of member firms with 40,000 people in over 130 countries, we have the scale to meet your changing needs, but with the insight and agility that helps you to stay one step ahead.

Privately owned, publicly listed and public sector clients come to us for our technical skills and industry capabilities but also for our different way of working. Our partners and teams invest the time to truly understand your business, giving real insight and a fresh perspective to keep you moving.

Whether a business has domestic or international aspirations, Grant Thornton can help you to unlock your potential for growth.

 

Marianne Chao

Marianne Chao’s practice encompasses a broad range of construction and infrastructure projects, complex and multijurisdictional arbitration and litigation, commercial dispute resolution, and competition issues.

Marianne represents contractors for government-owned and independent power plants and contractors and designers for LNG/oil infrastructure projects owned by CPC Corporation, Taiwan. She also recently represented an independent power plant in Taiwan in filing administrative appeals and lawsuits to challenge the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission’s decision to impose the highest fine ever in Taiwan arising from alleged participation in a cartel.

Marianne has represented the Taiwan Construction Industry Association in obtaining a favourable ruling from the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission to defeat the no-delay-damage clause, a breakthrough development in construction contracts. She led the Matra Transport cases in several highly publicized matters and successfully countered court actions brought by the Taiwan government to set aside and prevent the enforcement of an arbitral award in the amount of NT$2 billion. Marianne has advised on construction projects for CPC Corporation Taiwan, Chunghwa Telecom, CKS Airport Link, Taipei MRT, Taipei 101, Taipower, Taiwan High Speed Rail, Taichung MRT, and power plants.

Marianne is experienced in litigation and arbitration involving multiple jurisdictions and has handled commercial disputes involving disputes between shareholders, issues related to corporate governance, financial institution litigation, and general commercial disputes.

Marianne has been honoured in many prominent international legal guides. She has served as an arbitrator in arbitrations conducted in accordance with the Taiwan Arbitration Act and the ICC Rules of Arbitration. She also served as an executive supervisor of the Taiwan Bar Association and president of the International Federation of Women Lawyers, Taiwan Branch.

Jones Day:

Established in 1990, Jones Day’s Taipei Office grew from one attorney—Partner-in-Charge Jack Huang, who began as a partner in the New York Office—to approximately 30 lawyers today. Taipei was the third Jones Day office to open in Asia, after Tokyo and Hong Kong, and initially focused on providing corporate counseling to Taiwanese businesses in cross-border investments and mergers and acquisitions. Today, our practices include M&A, banking and finance, global disputes, capital markets, and intellectual property, all of which are consistently ranked in the top-tier by Chambers & Partners, Legal 500, and Asialaw.

The Taipei Office is the only worldwide partnership in Taiwan that has attorneys experienced and legally qualified in both U.S. and Taiwan law. Because of the Firm’s seamless “One Firm Worldwide” platform, lawyers in Taipei work side by side, as part of efficiently integrated teams, with the Firm’s 2,400 attorneys in offices throughout the Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Middle East. Our Asia network numbers more than 200 lawyers and includes two offices in Mainland China (Beijing and Shanghai), Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Singapore.

Public service is an essential part of our office and, since its inception, our Taipei attorneys consistently have been involved in the community. Institutions and government authorities in Taiwan often consult with us on law and policy reform proposals. Several of our lawyers hold board or other key positions in organizations such as the American Chamber of Commerce, the Taipei Bar Association, and the National Bar Association. Recently, some of our Taipei lawyers took leading roles and contributed to the amendment to Rules of Ethics by the National Bar Association and to the adoption of a set of regulations for listing by foreign companies in Taiwan for the Taiwan Stock Exchange. We are regularly engaged in pro bono activities on behalf of the rights of children, young adults, and the disadvantaged. We also undertake teaching projects with a number of Taiwan universities as well as the training of lawyers, judges, and prosecutors.

 

Yu-Li Tsai

Mr. Tsai, a patent attorney graduated from Department of Electrical Engineering of National Taiwan University (NTUEE), which is the best engineering school in Taiwan. Out of the interest of communication system, he immediately had attended in the Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering (GICE) of NTU since his graduation from NTUEE and has received his master’s degree after 2-year’s research. During his research life in GICE, he also started to get involved in knowledge and skills of patent-related matters for taking the bar examination for Patent Attorneys. He has passed the exam having a pass rate lower than 4%, and received the qualification of patent attorney.

Mr. Tsai also attended and gained an IP master degree from Law School of University of New Hampshire, also known as Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property. Right after the graduation, he had an opportunity to work for InterDigital, Inc. in Delaware for a short period, and then passed the U.S. Patent Registration Examination. He also passed China Patent Agent Examination recently.

Currently, Mr. Tsai is working for Deep & Far Attorneys-at-Law as a patent attorney and concurrently majoring a law master in National Chiao Tong University.

Mr. Tsai is quite proud of the fact that more than one fifth of the top 100 corporations have been clients of Deep & Far, and that more than 50% of the patent-experienced companies in the Hsinchu Science Industrial Park have entrusted their IPR work to this firm. It is Mr. Tsai’s firm belief that in the competition market, clients will only entrust their

Education

Mr. Tsai, a patent attorney graduated from Department of Electrical Engineering of National Taiwan University (NTUEE). He immediately had attended in the Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering (GICE) of NTU since his graduation from NTUEE and has received his master’s degree after 2-year’s research. Mr. Tsai also attended and gained an IP master degree from Law School of University of New Hampshire, also known as Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property. Currently, Mr. Tsai is majoring a law master in National Chiao Tong University

Admission

  • Taiwan Patent Attorney
  • U.S. Patent Agent
  • China Patent Agent

Deep & Far – Firm Overview:

Deep & Far attorneys-at-law was founded in 1992 and is dealing with all phases of laws with a focus on the practice in separate or in combination of all aspects of intellectual property rights (IPRs) including patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, unfair competition, and/or licensing, counseling, litigation and/or transaction thereof.

It is our philosophy to provide competent legal services that other firm cannot comparably provide. The necessitated ensuing problem is how we can so provide? Deep & Far so achieve by selecting, edifying and nurturing peoples who have the following personalities: learned in expertise, morally earnest and sincerely behaved in mind and strictly disciplined between give and take. It is well-believed that such properties are key factors for peoples to properly and competently behave themselves.