Jean Christophe Grall

Leaders in Law endorses Jean Christophe Grall as our exclusively recommended Competition Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Jean-Christophe please use the contact information provided above.

Jean-Christophe Grall is the founding partner and managing partner of Grall & Associés for twenty years now.


For more than 30 years, Jean-Christophe Grall has been providing legal assistance to industrial and service undertakings, notably through the drafting of commercial agreements and the setting up of comprehensive exclusive, selective or franchise distribution networks. He advises our clients in various sectors (Cosmetics, Food sector, Consumers electronics, Health sector, Hardware, Toys, Car sector, tools, …), especially during their annual rounds of commercial negotiation with retailers. He is a recognized specialist of the legal rules applicable to restrictive trade practices and unfair trading / consumer law and intellectual property. He is a lecturer at the University of Caen – Normandie in distribution law area and a former lecturer at the University of Rennes ; he has assisted various major actors in merger filling processes, sometimes very complex in nature (“phase II” procedures, “gun jumping” practices). On the litigation front, Jean-Christophe Grall regularly represents our clients in the specific context of inquiries launched by the French Directorate for Competition and Fraud Repression (“DGCCRF”), as well as during “dawn raids” initiated by the European Commission, and also before the French Competition Authority in cases involving allegations of abusive dominant behaviors or horizontal / vertical anticompetitive practices. Notably, Jean-Christophe is currently assisting major food companies which are being investigated by the French Competition Authority on the basis of alleged exclusionary anticompetitive practices.


French and English


In June 2010, Jean-Christophe Grall has been appointed at the Steering Committee of the French Directorate for Competition and Fraud Repression (“DGCCRF”).In June 2014, Jean-Christophe Grall has also been appointed at the Steering Committee of the French Association of Competition lawyers.He is included in the eighth edition of the best lawyers in France for competition and antitrust law.


Born in 1962, Jean-Christophe Grall graduated from the University of Paris – I Panthéon – Sorbonne in 1986 (Master’s Degree in Tax and Business Law and first part of chartered accountant degree). After serving one year as in house counsel in the French Army (1986/87), he started his legal practice in 1987.

Firm Description:

Grall & Associés is an independent French law firm devoted exclusively to economic law applied to corporate business strategies.

As a leading firm in France, Grall & Associés has developed advanced expertise recognised in all areas related to competition law, distribution law and consumer law, in addition to intellectual property.

Grall & Associés has built a strong network of contacts in Europe and the US, Canada and in all major countries which have antitrust legislation. Grall & Associés is also a founding member of the Antitrust Alliance network.

The firm consists of 17 lawyers: five partners and 12 associates. For each client, the firm places very special importance on its business environment, and on the economic, regulatory and cultural particularities of its line of business.

Areas of practice: 

Competition: the competition division of Grall & Associés has one of the largest teams in the French market. Its experience working on cases enables it to assist each one of its clients by anticipating the reaction of the competition authorities and by developing the best strategy – be it advice or litigation – to respond in the right way to any complex situation that involves the French and European competition rules.

Distribution: distribution consists of a chain of economic players where each plays a specific role, from the production, manufacturing and importation to the end consumer, relying on intermediaries and logistics teams.

Each player, at every step of the value chain, will seek to generate a maximum profit margin, causing abuse – whether voluntary or not.

The Grall & Associés teams assist clients, both in anticipating and in handling any difficulty arising from the implementation of distribution law.

Consumer: advice on consumer information/legal guarantees/product safety/unfair trade practices/unfair clauses/consumer mediation (mandatory since 1 January 2016); legal assistance in making signage/conducting advertising campaigns/promotional activities/sales; drafting of rules for games, contests, sweepstakes; drafting of B2C general terms and conditions of sale (GTCS) and contracts for commercial guarantees; legal assistance in the context of trade with the government (DGCCRF /DIRECCTE/DDPP (Department Directorate for the Protection of Populations)) following an audit/warning/court order.

Intellectual property: advice and support for the protection of all the distinguishing marks and intellectual property rights of companies (trade marks, copyrights, patents, designs and models, software, databases, know-how, business secrets); advice and validation of product launches and promotional activities, prior art searches; procedures for the filing and registration of trade marks, audit of brand portfolios, adversial procedures before the French Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) and the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) (formerly Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (OHIM)).

Procedures and litigation: assistance and defence before the Competition Authority and the European Commission, or any other competent authority and before the French or European courts of appeal (IPC/ECJ); monitoring and assisting companies following notification of complaints received from French or European competition authorities; providing support in response to the investigative bodies within the Directorate-General for Competition, Consumer Affairs and Fraud prevention (DGCCRF), the Competition Authority or the European Commission, or other state competition authorities, in close partnership with colleagues at the Antitrust Alliance network, co ordination of any procedures involving the competition authorities and/or the competent courts of different countries.

Regulation: energy; the postal services; transportation; health law; agriculture.


Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin

Leaders in Law endorses Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin as our exclusively recommended Sports Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Ludovic please use the contact information provided above.

Me Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin is an Avocat à la Cour (2000 class, with the admission exam passed in 1998). He holds a Licence en droit from the University of Paris X – Nanterre obtained in 1996. In 2002, he took a sabbatical leave. Ludovic was trained by Magic Circle law firms (with a background of capital markets) and received by a decision dated 27 April 2006 his certificate of end of traineeship from the Ecole de Formation des Barreaux de la Cour d’Appel de Paris.

In 2015, Ludovic created his own law firm and received three years later the France 2018 CorporateLiveWireBusiness Lawyer of the Year Global Award.

He joined in September 2018 the LIL (Leaders in Law) legal network as the exclusive Sports Law Member for France and is registered in the Paris Bar as Avocat Mandataire Sportif (sports lawyer agent).

Between 2018 and 2021 Me Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin received numerous awards including, the Global Law Experts 2019 Sports Lawyer of the Year Annual Award – France and the 2020 IP Lawyer of the Year – France awarded by Leaders in Law. He received in 2021 the Business and Regulatory Lawyer of the Year Award – France awarded by Corporate INTL.

His practice can include contracts and settlement agreements, business and company law, capital markets, EU and international law (free movement), tax, litigation, mediation and human rights.

In 2021, Ludovic pleaded before the DNCG (Direction Nationale du Contrôle de Gestion) of the FFF (Fédération Française de Football).

Regarded as dynamic, he supports economic empowerment.


Mylène Boché-Robinet

Leaders in Law endorses Mylène Boché-Robinet as our exclusively recommended Insolvency Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Mylène please use the contact information provided above.

A graduate of Sciences Po Paris, Mylène obtained a Master’s degree from Robert Schuman University in Strasbourg before successfully passing ( major ) the entrance diploma at the Paris Bar School. She then joined the restructuring & insolvency team at Clifford Chance in Paris. She developed her expertise there for nearly 10 years, before joining August Debouzy as counsel. She was then presented in the press as “ the rising star of Restructuring ”.

In January 2019, Mylène co-founded the firm Boché Dobelle Avocats, which has been immediately recognized as an excellent boutique player in the restructuring area. Boché Dobelle has been ranked as “Leading firm” (Band 1) in the category “Restructuring & Insolvency”- Advise to mid-cap firms and their shareholders” in 2020.

Mylène assists the managers of French and foreign companies in the context of procedures for the prevention and treatment of difficulties, as well as legal representatives and administrators, financial institutions and employee groups. She also works alongside buyers in the context of the acquisition of underperforming companies ( Distressed M&A). She is active in international restructuring cases, particularly Franco-German.

Mylène is the president of Women in Restructuring (WiR), and a member of International Insolvency Institute (III) and Turnaround Management Association (TMA).


François Ferrari

Leaders in Law endorses François Ferrari as our exclusively recommended Energy Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with François please use the contact information provided above.

François Ferrari is heading ACTAH and takes care of the team in charge of Energy Law. 


  • Secretary of Regional Medef
  • Professor at State « Ecole des Mines »
  • Member of Economic Chamber
  • Founder of Managers Club
  • Skipper of “Voiles de l’espoir”

Firm Description

Our Philosophy

Your lawyer is your counsel.

Prior to any litigation and regardless of any dispute, you can consult it to make sure of the strategy to adopt in your professional and commercial relations current or occasional operations.


Before any litigation, we undertake to carry out with you the finest analysis of the problem submitted, to submit the strengths and weaknesses of your situation.

You will be given the procedure to take if necessary but also the strategy allowing you to avoid a procedure when possible. In any case, you will be informed of the exact cost of each option in terms of fees.

You will make your decision knowing full well.


Some situations can not be settled amicably. Sometimes it is necessary to resort to legal proceedings to assert one’s rights. It is not uncommon that such a procedure is then interrupted at the request of your opponent to compromise.

If you choose to initiate the action, our entire firm and, if applicable, its correspondents are mobilized to take the necessary steps in the shortest possible time.


The role of the lawyer is also to harmonize the positions of the parties, ie to agree on initially divergent points of view.

As a copywriter, we will bring you our experience of litigation to exclude from your written agreements any clause that may be interpreted. Thus, in case of inevitable litigation on the said act, you have clear benchmarks on its outcome.


Jean-Luc Sfez

Jean-Luc SFEZ (Business School, Master in Law, CPA), managing-partner, started his career at The World Bank before working during six years in a Big Four and founding DSA in 1981. He has advised on more than 200 M&A transactions.

Jean-Luc is a financial consultant with broad experience in all aspects of accounting, auditing and corporate finance including tax. He has direct experience with Venture Capital as financial advisor and strategic analyst and also large experience as direct investor in Small and Mid Caps as well as companies under LBO’s.

Firm description

DSA Group supports middle market entrepreneurs with tailored expertise and services since 1981.

Our independence, human size and creativity ensure the effectiveness, anticipation and added value that small and medium enterprises demand.

Our range of services covers the main issues that a manager may encounter:

– Accounting
– Auditing & Transaction Services
– Corporate Finance
– Consulting
– Delegated management

The multidisciplinary approach offers our clients serious added value and time saving.

Being entrepreneurs themselves, partners are really able to understand clients’ needs. They adapt to each client’s unique issues and state of operation.

We offer creative solutions. We develop a pragmatic overview of the specific issues the business faces and propose coherent solutions that take the economic and regulatory contexts into account.

We help our client being proactive. We have always come up with innovative solutions, providing the client with just the right service at just the right time.

Our long standing experience has enabled us to build up close relationships with major players: investment funds, lawyers, bankers.


Control over numbers and financial information has come to play an ever-increasing role in the life and future of businesses.

DSA is a true partner to a great number of high-growth small and medium businesses, helping them to keep and revise their accounts, and providing assistance with staff management (eg hiring, dismissal, payroll, social declaration). For each of our services, DSA provides quality and innovative methods to help you take the best decisions, control the uncertainties and anticipate changes.

DSA runs a service dedicated to guide French subsidiaries of foreign groups. This very specific expertise, bound to our membership in the AGN network enables DSA to assist French subsidiaries of multinational groups with their accounting, tax, labor law, social regulation and reporting needs. AGN is made up of independent consulting firms in over eighty countries.


In the field of statutory auditing, DSA is present throughout France in a wide range of market sectors. DSA assures you of the regularity of your accounts and published financial data.

On this highly competitive market, our group has developed a range of services and technical solutions dedicated to the special needs of small and medium businesses and industries (some of which are listed), as well as to those of mutual funds and their management companies.

DSA’s ambition is to provide small and medium businesses with the thoroughness and quality of the best practices in the field. In fact, our partners trained at leading international auditing and consulting firms including the famous “Big Four”.

Our audit team can also perform other statutory duties such as audits of capital contributions, mergers, and acquisitions, various certificates (eg equity certificate) and contractual audits for specific operations (eg M&A, transfers, IPO).

DSA offers also a range of services devoted to private equity funds. DSA supports PE funds with realism and reactivity, providing a team specialized in acquisition and vendor due diligence who can adapt to the fund’s specific operations and needs.

Transaction services

Our audit team can perform statutory duties such as audits of capital contributions, mergers, acquisitions, certificates (eg equity certificate) and contractual audits for specific operations (eg M&A, transfers, IPO).

In those times of crisis, DSA team has developed strong skills in restructuring advisory which are nowadays necessary to complete certain transactions.

DSA offers also a range of services devoted to private equity funds. DSA supports PE funds with realism and reactivity, providing a team specialized in acquisition and vendor due diligence who can adapt to the fund’s specific operations and needs.

Corporate finance

Corporate finance has the challenge of matching increasingly complex operations with the right financial resources. DSA Corporate Finance has expertise in mergers, acquisitions and financing on behalf of many industrial and commercial groups as well as investment funds.

We have taken part in over 150 different operations of all kinds.

Every day, we put this expertise to help the SMBs and investment funds we serve.

Professionals at DSA have also assisted with stock transactions, such as takeover bids, exchange offerings and buy-back offers. In addition, DSA possesses specific expertise in advising French and foreign companies on raising funds in France through private or public investments.

We provide clients such as investment funds, entrepreneurs and growth enterprises a key contact to guide them through each stage of the transaction: identification of operations, negotiation, legal, tax and financial briefs and due diligence.

The corporate finance service also assists clients in financing their working capital requirements.

Carlos Villacorta Salís

Leaders in Law endorses Carlos Villacorta Salís as our exclusively recommended Personal Injury Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Carlos please use the contact information provided above.

Carlos Villacorta Salís is a lawyer, member of the Madrid Bar Association and managing partner of BCV Lex Madrid’s offices.

He has been involved since 1992 as a plaintiff lawyer in cases related to numerous international aviation accidents and incidents.

In the aviation field his Firm has represented over 3,000 clients, family members of nearly 1,000 passengers affected by more than 30 accidents.

Throughout the years, he has focused on defective products litigation, in cases such as the BAL/DHL midair collision over Lake Konstanz (Germany), the Flash Airlines accident in Charm-El-Sheikh (Egypt), and more recently in the Spanair tragedy at Barajas Airport (Spain), or the Air France accident in the Atlantic Ocean.

His work also covers other areas of cross-border personal injury litigation (RTA, medical negligence, pharmaceutical liability, product liability, collective damages, etc.).

He has been a frequent speaker at numerous national and international events (Peopil, GJN, BIICL, UPM, UNIA, ICAM) and written articles around different legal subjects.

He is member of the AAJ (Governor), Peopil, Global Justice Network Ltd. (Board member) and Legal Abroad (Partner). He is also Co-Chair of the Section of Aeronautical and Space Law of the Madrid Bar Association (ICAM), Vice-president of AEDAE (Spanish Association of Air and Space Law) and member of the Board of Directors of ANAVA-RC. He speaks Spanish, English, and French.

BCV Lex:

Representation and assistance for victims of plane crashes, maritime disasters, and land transportation accidents

With over 20 years’ experience, we have represented more than 3,500 victims (or their family members) of 35 plane crashes in recent years. From our offices in Madrid and Bordeaux, and with the cooperation of an international network of partners, we develop the best global strategy for these particularly complex litigation proceedings, which always include an international component often overlooked by those whose expertise lies elsewhere.

Our area of practice likewise extends to victims of other types of public transport accidents, such as maritime disasters and train crashes.

We also have experience in representing the victims of powerful pharmaceutical companies that have sold defective products, putting people’s health and lives at risk, as well as the victims of medical malpractice.

Only a specialized law firm that is fully conversant with International Codes and Regulations and how big corporations operate is capable of representing victims the way they deserve.

Anne-Katel Martineau

Leaders in Law endorses Anne-Katel Martineau as our exclusively recommended IT Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Anne-Katel please use the contact information provided above.

Anne-Katel has built up ten years of experience in Information and communications technology law. Her broad-based approach to cases and passion for her clients’ sectors enable her to quickly grasp their issues. She is therefore able to truly address their business-related issues.

Her entrepreneurial spirit and passion for law, art, and cutting-edge technologies encouraged her to establish her own law firm – MEDIASTIC – in Paris. She wishes to provide “haute-couture” services at competitive fees to assist start-ups and freelancers in their innovative projects.

The IT Law Practice:

  • E-commerce platforms: supplier and web provider contracts, general and special terms and conditions of sale, general and special terms and conditions of use
  • Legal framework for digital, interactive and non-interactive online content services platforms operating conditions: audio-visual (news), feature length and short films, music, books, photography, video games
  • Electronic communications: distribution contract for telecoms services, telecommunications equipment and associated services, acquisition and supply of dark fibres, VOIP, network deployment and infrastructure connection, and ARCEP assistance (French Regulatory Authority for the Postal Sector and Electronic Communications).
  • Technological risk and insurance: audits and negotiation of insurance contracts with underwriters
  • Mobile phone services: ringtones, wallpaper, triple play services
  • IT policies: drafting and updating policies in relation with evolutions of labour law, enforceability of policies
  • IT contracts: calls for tenders, project owner and project management assistance, development, licences, transfer of rights, integration, information management, sub-contracting, hosting, maintenance, service-level agreements
  • Business software, software and other digital content: development contracts, licences, transfer, distribution, maintenance, sequestration, management of counterfeiting litigation, intrusions in automatic data processing systems and software theft complaints
  • Cloud computing: contract drafting, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS
  • Big Data: contract drafting
  • Information system security and integrity: cyber-surveillance and cybercrime
  • Websites: legal notices, general terms and conditions of use, general terms and conditions of sale, hosting
  • Databases: protection, management of registrations with the APP, counterfeiting litigation and advice on the sui generis regime.
  • Personal data: audits, standard and simplified declarations, transfer of data abroad, authorization applications for special processing (surveys and sensitive data), legal support for setting up video surveillance and biometrics systems, assistance following employee complaints to CNIL (French data protection authority)


The firm’s creation arose from the desire to provide “tailor-made” advice to companies and freelancers on matters relating to Information Technology (IT), Intellectual Property (IP) and assist them in litigation.

The firm strongly focuses on digital law and more specifically in the sectors of computer science, media, visual arts, design, audio-visual, cinema, music, photography and fashion.

The firm was founded by Anne-Katel Martineau in late 2007, under the trademark MEDIASTIC, drawing on partnerships with European and American law firms, especially in New York where she used to work and travels regularly. She is therefore able to accompany the firm’s clients’ in their European and international projects.

In 2012, 2013 and 2014, the firm MEDIASTIC was distinguished by “Décideurs Stratégies” as being one of the best French law firms for its legal practice in the audio-visual and internet sectors, as well as the art market.

In September 2013, the firm was briefly a partnership under the name MEDIASTIC-MARTINEAU ASSOCIES A.A.R.P.I.

After this partnership of a year and a half, Anne-Katel MARTINEAU continues her international development to assist foreign companies to secure their agreements in the digital sector in France and in Europe.

Recognized for its practice in negotiations and settlement agreements in an international context, the firm has been distinguished multiple times and has already received several awards in 2015 in the category “IT law firm of the year in France” by Corporate Intl, Global Law Experts, ACQ5, Professional Sector Network and Corporate LiveWire.

The firm also has a strong focus on the art market, its team being passionate about contemporary art. The firm provides artists with its legal advice and knowledge of the art market. The firm is able to assist them at an international level, through their agents, galleries, or even as an artistic agent.

Caroline Abbar

Leaders in Law endorses Caroline Abbar as our exclusively recommended M&A Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Caroline, please use the contact information provided above.

With approximately 1,100 lawyers in offices around the world, Weil operates according to the “one firm” principle, allowing us to bring the right mix of firm-wide skill and local-market presence to deliver the coordinated legal advice necessary to help our clients achieve their sophisticated goals and objectives.


Founded in 1931, Weil has provided legal services to the largest public companies, private equity firms and financial institutions for more than 85 years. Widely recognized by those covering the legal profession, Weil’s lawyers regularly advise clients globally on their most complex Litigation, Corporate, Restructuring, and Tax and Benefits matters. Weil has been a pioneer in establishing a geographic footprint that has allowed the Firm to partner with clients wherever they do business.

Our attention to client service rests upon a few core values:

  • A comprehensive understanding of our clients’ businesses and culture
  • A thorough focus on our clients’ objectives, both short-term and long-term
  • An unwavering commitment to helping clients solve problems in the most efficient, cost-effective way

Anthony Giustini

Leaders in Law endorses Anthony Giustini as our exclusively recommended Oil & Gas Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Anthony please use the contact information provided above.

Anthony Giustini specialises mainly on project development and finance transactions in the oil and gas, petrochemical, power projects, mining and infrastructure sectors, in markets throughout the world.

Who we are & how we work:

We are one of the world’s pre-eminent law firms, with significant depth and range of resources across five continents. As a single, fully integrated, global partnership, we pride ourselves on our approachable, collegial and team-based way of working. We always strive to exceed the expectations of our clients, which include corporates from all the commercial and industrial sectors, governments, regulators, trade bodies and not-for-profit organisations. We provide them with the highest-quality advice and legal insight, which combines the Firm’s global standards with in-depth local expertise.

Many of the world’s leading organisations look to Clifford Chance not just for legal expertise but for advice on business critical issues. They place us in this position of trust because:

  • We expect our people to put the interests of our clients first: we invest in understanding client organisations, their operating context and the opportunities and challenges they face.
  • We give practical advice: we draw on the huge range and depth of our expertise to develop commercial, effective solutions for clients.
  • We believe in the power of teams, rather than individuals: to secure successful outcomes, we bring together groups of people with just the right mix of sector, product and jurisdictional knowledge.
  • We invest for the future: we have always taken the view that we must invest today to build the firm our clients will need 15, 20 or more years into the future. As a result, our resources are second to none, whether our people, our know-how, our approach to client service, or our sheer geographic footprint across 32 major financial centres across the Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

As a leader in our field, we are rightly held to high standards in all we do. We are committed to inspiring the trust of our stakeholders by making Responsible Business a central part of our strategy. This encompasses how we do business and manage risk, as well as our commitment to our people, communities and the environment.

Last, but not least, we aim to be easy to work with, down to earth and approachable.

Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin

Leaders in Law endorses Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin as our exclusively recommended Corporate Law expert in France. If you wish to get in touch with Ludovic please use the contact information provided above.

Me Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin is an Avocat à la Cour (2000 class). He received by a decision dated 27 April 2006 his certificate of end of traineeship from the Ecole de Formation des Barreaux de la Cour d’Appel de Paris. The experience of Ludovic comes from Magic Circle law firms, with a capital markets background.

He holds a Licence en droit from the University of Paris X – Nanterre obtained in 1996, a Maîtrise in business law from the University of Paris X – Nanterre, a Maîtrise in international and european law from the University of Paris X – Nanterre, a DEA in contract law (advanced theoretical postgraduate diploma) from the University of Paris – Sud (XI), now Paris – Saclay, a DESS (professional specialized postgraduate diploma) in international commerce from the University of Paris X – Nanterre, a diploma of professional English from the University of London (British Institute in Paris) and a certificate in private law and contract enforcement in the United – States and in France (contract and arbitration) from Yale University & Paris II – Panthéon – Assas  University (2015) – being Major of the paper research / thesis. Ludovic is a former speaker (capital markets) in the Master 2 Business and Tax Law (Université Paris I – Sorbonne – HEC).

He was sent in secondment (i) to the French investment bank of SG in La Défense (16 months between 2003 and 2004) and (ii) to CC London, 07 months in 2006 (EAP Programme – capital markets).

In 2015, Ludovic created his own law firm and was part in 2018, 2019 and 2020 of Advisory Excellence as the exclusive Corporate Law Member for France.

Between 2018 and 2021 Me Ludovic Timbal Duclaux de Martin received numerous awards, including the Business Lawyer of the Year 2018 in France award awarded by CorporateLiveWire and the InterContinental 2019 finance & law regulatory lawyer of the Year – France country award. He was also named Individual by Corporate America Today – 2019 and by Corporate M&A 2020 receiving Business Litigation and Regulatory Lawyer of the Year Awards – France. In 2021 he received the IP Lawyer of the Year Award – France (Corporate INTL) and the 2020/2021 Boutique Insolvency & Restructuring Lawyer of the Year Award – France awarded by CorporateLiveWire.

He joined in 2021 the LIL (Leaders in Law) legal network as the exclusive Corporate Law Member for France.

His practice can include commercial contracts, company and business law, corporate and capital markets, intellectual property (know-how, trademarks), white collar, tax, commercial litigation and bankruptcy law.

Regarded as dynamic, he supports economic empowerment.