Corporate and Commercial Law – Stay Informed on Recent Legal Developments across 37 Jurisdictions

We are pleased to present the latest edition of EY Corporate and Commercial Law global update.  The articles in this global update reflect the global reach and diversity of EY Law services, from corporate law to civil law and commercial law to regulatory aspects across 37 jurisdictions, covering Western Europe, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe and Asia-Pacific.


HONG KONG (page 22)

Revised Hong Kong listing regime for foreign issuers

The Hong Kong Stock Exchange enacted on 1 January 2022 a revised regime for issuers incorporated in any foreign jurisdictions. Previously, listing applicants had to be incorporated in recognized jurisdictions (Hong Kong, Mainland China, Cayman Islands and Bermuda) or in jurisdictions accepted by the Stock Exchange. The new regime removes the distinction between recognized and acceptable jurisdictions. All issuers now have to meet the core standards of shareholder protection, which cover different aspects including directors, proceedings at shareholders’ general meetings, variation of rights, amendment of constitutional documents, auditor appointment, removal and remuneration, proxies and corporate representatives, inspection of branch register, and voluntary winding up.

Such protections should be set out in the issuer’s constitutional documents unless the relevant domestic laws and regulations provide the same protections. Existing listed issuers must fully comply with the new core standards or make necessary amendments to their constitutional documents by their second annual general meeting following 1 January 2022.The new regime introduces a revised Chapter 19C in the Main Board Listing Rules to consolidate secondary listing requirements for overseas issuers primary listed on a qualifying exchange (i.e., New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq or Main Market of the London Stock Exchange).

The new Chapter 19C also sets out the eligibility for dual primary listing by a Grandfathered Greater China Issuer (i.e., an overseas issuer with its center of gravity in Greater China primary listed (a) on a qualifying exchange on or before 15 December 2017 or (b) on a qualifying exchange after 15 December 2017 but on or before 30 October 2020, and controlled by corporate beneficiaries as of 30 October 2020 under a weighted voting rights structure) and a Non-Greater China Issuer with a weighted voting rights or variable interest entity structure that does not meet the usual primary listing requirements.

By Rossana Chu (, Fai Li (

LC Lawyers LLP is an independent law firm. It is a Hong Kong law firm member of the global EY network, in collaboration with other law firm members.


Note: This material has been prepared for general information purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as professional advice for any cases. Should you need further information or legal advice, please contact us.

Fast Interface for New Issuance (FINI) for Hong Kong IPO Settlement

Currently, in a typical Hong Kong IPO, five business days (commonly known as “T+5”) are required on average from pricing (“T” day) to settlement of new shares for trading on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong (Exchange).


Compared with other major listing venues that allow newly listed shares to trade on “T+1”, this is uncompetitive. The existing lengthy settlement process exposes both investors and issuers to market risk that might influence the pricing of the IPO. Further, in a mega IPO, the accumulation of subscription monies with the receiving banks may even result in short-term liquidity shortage or interbank borrowing rate rises during the settlement period.

Features of FINI

The Exchange is shortening this process to “T+2” by adopting the platform of Fast Interface for New Issuance (FINI) as the mandatory settlement mechanism of all future Hong Kong IPOs. After FINI is adopted, a typical Hong Kong IPO timetable will carry the following key dates:

T-5: initiation of offering
T-4 to T-1 12:00: public offer subscription period
T-1 by 17:30: public offer funding confirmation
T 00:00: allocation adjustments
T: pricing
T by 17:30: public offer money settlement
T+1 by 10:00: submission of placee list for the placing tranche to regulators (fully digitalized with introduction of FINI)
T+1 by 17:00: regulatory clearance by the Securities and Futures Commission and the Exchange
T+1 by 23:00: allotment results announcement to be made by the issuer
T+2 09:00: trading commences

In terms of timing, market-wide testing will be conducted from February to June 2023, with the view to launching FINI in June 2023.[1]

For the convenience of market participants and the alignment of primary and secondary market standards, the Exchange will align the investor identification requirements for all IPO subscribers with those set out in the new investor identification regime at the trading level for the securities market in Hong Kong (please refer to our prior article for more details on such regime[2]).

Through FINI, IPO sponsors, underwriters, brokers, distributors, share registrars as well as regulators will use the new digital platform to perform their IPO settlement duties during the offer initiation, share subscription, pricing, allotment, payment, regulatory approval and stock admission processes.

Public comments

Interestingly, several brokers’ associations indicated that FINI may reduce affect their revenues, especially those related to interest income on IPO margin lending, resulting from the shorter settlement cycle for both the public and placing tranches. This phenomenon is acknowledged by the Exchange.[3]

However, practitioners recognize that FINI may offer larger benefits to the market as a whole due to the less exposure to market risk, faster recycling of “locked-up” IPO subscription monies, reduction in borrowing costs to investors and better real-time information. Thus, FINI has earned wide support.

First published on 21 December 2022 on LC Lawyers LLP website

Note: This material has been prepared for general information purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as professional advice for any cases. Should you need further information or legal advice, please contact us.




White & Case advises Merck KGaA on acquisition of Erbi Biosystems

Global law firm White & Case LLP has advised Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (Merck), a leading science and technology company, on its acquisition of Erbi Biosystems, the developer of the Breez 2-ml microbioreactor technology platform.

The acquisition of US-based Erbi Biosystems strengthens Merck’s portfolio of therapeutic proteins and creates future development opportunities, including in the area of cell therapies. The transaction is part of the company’s strategy to accelerate innovation through targeted acquisitions of small- to mid-sized high impact companies.

The parties have agreed not to disclose financial details. The acquisition was completed on December 1, 2022.

Merck KGaA, headquartered in Darmstadt, Germany, is a leading science and technology company active in the healthcare, life science and electronics sectors. The company employs approximately 60,000 people and in 2021 generated sales of €19.7 billion in 66 countries.

US-based Erbi Biosystems maintains a research and development and manufacturing in Massachusetts. Its products are used in the US, Europe and China.

The White & Case team which advised on the transaction was led by partner Stefan Koch (Frankfurt) and included partner Victoria Rosamond (New York), counsel Samantha Rozell (Chicago) and associates Caitlin Powell Gimpel (Milan), Christian Sperling (Frankfurt) and Tyrone Crawford (Washington, DC).


C&M Opens Doors to its Fourth Office in Hyderabad

Chandhiok & Mahajan is pleased to announce the opening of its fourth office at Hyderabad. Located at Shangri-La Plaza in Banjara Hills, the office can accommodate up to 10 lawyers and staff.

Competition and disputes partner, Avinash Amarnath, has relocated from C&M’s Bengaluru office to take over as resident partner in Hyderabad.

Pooja Mahajan, C&M’s managing partner said:

We are delighted to be in Hyderabad. With Bengaluru and now Hyderabad, we are better placed to serve our clients in the wider Southern region.

Avinash is an exceptional colleague. We are grateful to him for taking up the responsibility of leading C&M in Hyderabad.

Commenting on the opening of the office, Sujoy Bhatia, partner and head of corporate commented:

C&M has been serving clients in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh remotely from Delhi and Bengaluru. The opening of the Hyderabad office is in response to our clients requesting us to be closer to them both on transactions and litigation.

A Pathway to Slovakia Citizenship


Since 1 April 2022, anyone with a Slovak Republic residence permit and a parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent who was born as a Czechoslovak citizen in the territory of Slovak Republic may apply for Slovak citizenship via Slovakia citizenship by descent program.

This citizenship pathway is available regardless of the applicant’s place of birth or knowledge of the Slovak language, history, or culture.

Notably, those with ancestors who had lost their Slovak citizenships may also apply to become a citizen of Slovakia if certain conditions are met, making Slovakia one of the most generous EU member states in terms of facilitating a pathway to grant citizenships to foreign-born descendants of its citizens.

Aside from the citizenship pathway, Slovakia allows anyone of Slovak origins to apply for a Slovak Living Abroad (“SLA”) certificate to live in Slovakia.

In other words, Slovak Descendants who do not qualify for the above-mentioned citizenship program due to the generational limit imposed may now have the opportunity to apply for SLA certificates to reside in Slovakia.

Additionally, SLA holders may either apply for Slovak citizenship if they can demonstrate with evidence that they have contributed significantly to their respective SLA communities or maintained continuous residence in the territory of the Slovak Republic for three years immediately preceding submission of the citizenship application.


“We have received a spike in queries about the Slovak citizenship-by-ancestry program since the Slovak government announced its decision to relax immigration rules to allow ethnic Slovaks born outside of Slovakia to apply for citizenship or SLA to reconnect with their heritage,” said Mr. Jean-Francois Harvey, Global Managing Partner of Harvey Law Group, an international law firm that specializes in investment and business immigration matters.

“The recent surge in queries for Slovak citizenship-by-ancestry is hardly surprising when one considers the advantages and benefits that Slovak citizenship brings,”
said Mr. Harvey.


Becoming a Slovak citizen not only allows one to live, work, and study in Slovakia and across all the 27 EU member states without getting a visa, it also grants access to the Slovak passport, which is the world’s sixth most powerful passport in terms of travel freedom in 2022.

Holders of Slovak passport enjoy visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 156 destinations around the world, and in times of emergency, such as those caused by COVID-19, they are entitled to call for help from the Slovak government or the embassy of any other EU member states.


Those interested in migrating to Slovakia may also be delighted to learn that Slovakia currently ranks eleventh in the world in terms on its tax competitiveness, indicating that the country’s taxation regime is more favourable in comparison to those offered by popular immigration destinations such as Canada, United States, and United Kingdom.

“With over 800,000 people reported of Slovak ancestry in North America, it is possible that an astonishing number of people could qualify to apply for Slovak citizenship-by-ancestry if they delve deep into their family histories and demonstrate an uninterrupted lineage with a qualifying Slovak ancestor,” said Harvey.

 If you have ancestors who were Slovaks and you would like to learn more about the slovak citizenship-by-ancestry pathway.

Please contact us at to complete a free eligibility assessment and find out if you qualify to apply for the Slovak citizenship and passport through your ancestral links.

ESG Series – COP27: Achievements and Deficiencies

After days of intense negotiations in Egypt, countries at COP27 reached an agreement on an outcome that established a funding mechanism to compensate vulnerable nations for “loss and damage” from climate-induced disasters. In this article, we will discuss the key decisions and responses from COP27.

Background of COP27

The “Conference of the Parties” (or commonly known as “COP”) is a global climate summit organised by the United Nations with the goal of bringing all the countries together to tackle climate change. This year is the 27th time that nations met to discuss this critical yet thorny topic (thus it is called “COP27”). The summit ended on 20 November 2022, two days later than the expected conclusion date due to difficulties in coordinating different participants to come to a consensus.

Loss and damage financing

COP27 reached a breakthrough agreement on the new “loss and damage” fund for vulnerable countries. Three decades ago, small island states and some developing countries started calling for compensation for the damage climate change inflicts on their communities. The term “compensation” was very sensitive for the developed nations which worried that such a fund may expose them to huge liabilities for historic and continuing emissions. Thus, the introduction of the “loss and damage” fund at COP27 was a huge milestone for small islands and other vulnerable nations.

A transitional committee will make recommendations on how to operationalise the funding arrangements and report at COP28 next year. The funding for loss and damage may come through “existing funding arrangements” such as development banks and debt relief and “innovative sources” which could mean taxes on fossil fuels, aviation and/or shipping. The European Union requires that support should only go to “vulnerable” countries, a term to be defined by the transitional committee.

Fossil fuels

In COP26, the climate conference in Glasgow made a push to secure global net zero emission by mid-century and keep a maximum of 1.5 C degrees of warming within reach and singled out coal as a problem for the first time, with countries agreeing to phase down its use.

In COP27, the deal text largely reiterates wording from COP26, calling up parties to accelerate “efforts towards the phase-down of unabated coal power and phase-out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies”.  “Unabated” coal power is described by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as the use of coal power that is not mitigated with technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, such as carbon capture utilisation and storage.

The COP27 deal referred to a new term “low emissions energy” alongside renewables as the energy sources of the future. It is believed that the new term means natural gas. In fact, COP27 host Egypt and certain other fossil gas-exporting governments are promoting natural gas as the cleanest hydrocarbon fossil fuel and the transitional source of energy to strike the right balance between emission reduction and knock-on societal effects resulting from a phase-out. By contrast, IEA said that if the world is to have an even chance of limiting global warming to 1.5 C degrees, then there should be no new gas fields and the use of unabated gas in the electricity system should fall 97% between 2021 and 2040. Although burning natural gas is a little over half as polluting to the climate as coal, methane venting and leaks from gas infrastructure can cause substantial pollution.[1]

When the goal is shifted towards a “low-carbon economy” rather than a “zero-carbon economy”, the commitment to phase out or at least phase down may be slowed down.


Mitigation means avoiding and reducing emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to prevent the planet from warming to more extreme temperatures.

COP27 significantly advanced the work on mitigation that aimed at urgently scaling up mitigation ambition and implementation. The work programme will start immediately following COP27 and continue until 2030, with at least two global dialogues held each year. Governments are to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their national climate plans by the end of 2023, as well as to accelerate efforts to phase down unabated coal power and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.

The decision text recognises that the unprecedented global energy crisis underlines the urgency to rapidly transform energy systems to be more secure, reliable, and resilient, by accelerating clean and just transitions to renewable energy during this critical decade of action.

International response to COP27

Countries closed COP27 with a hard-fought deal to create a fund to help developing countries being battered by climate disasters. However, COP27 was also questioned by certain government officials and experts for not being strictly committed to phase out fossil fuels or adopt more ambitious emission-cutting targets.[2]

Overall, the deal achieved in COP27 was considered a success for responding to the devastating impact that global warming is already having on vulnerable countries. But there are international concerns over the developed countries’ commitment in meeting their funding obligations, when the earlier COP goal of developed country parties to mobilise jointly US$100 billion per year by 2020 has not yet been met.[3] Also, the language used in the COP27 deal does not put stronger commitments on limiting global warming to 1.5 C degrees, thus arousing doubts on the achievement of that goal.

By Rossana Chu and Jacky Chan

Note: This material has been prepared for general information purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as professional advice for any cases. Should you need further information or legal advice, please contact us.







Spanish firm Pérez-Llorca opens first Asian office in Singapore

Madrid-headquartered Pérez-Llorca will open a new office in Singapore in the first quarter of 2023, making it the first Spanish law firm to set up in the city state. The firm’s first Asian office will be at the forefront of developing its strategy in the region.

Pedro Pérez-Llorca

“The Asian economy is outperforming both the American and European economies,” said Pedro Pérez-Llorca, senior partner at Pérez-Llorca in Madrid. “We have to have a presence there, to help our clients and also for ourselves, to develop our own practice and to continue to learn, and Singapore is, without a doubt, the place to be in the Asia-Pacific”.

Senior associate Pablo Hontoria will relocate to Singapore with a small team of lawyers to lead the new office and his appointment as a partner will be proposed at the next general meeting of partners.

Hontoria started his career at Pérez-Llorca in Madrid in 2011 and worked with partner Iván Delgado to set up the firm’s New York office in 2015. He has extensive experience in advising national and international clients on M&As, transfers of assets and business units, as well as on corporate and corporate governance matters.

The new Singapore office will strengthen the firm’s international projection in collaboration with other international offices in New York, London and Brussels. Besides Madrid, the firm also has an office in Barcelona.

Anti-money Laundering in China: Moving to a Risk-Based Approach

On March 1, 2022, the Measures for Financial Institutions on Customer Due Diligence and Client ID Information, and Transaction Records Management (‘Measures’) came effective. The Measures issued by the People’s Bank of China, the Bank of China insurance regulatory commission, and the China Securities Regulatory Commission align with the current financial landscape, and international anti-money laundering standards by establishing a risk-based framework for financial institutions.

Risk-based approach 

With the development of financial products, financial institutions (‘FI’) need to respond more intuitively to money-laundering threats. A risk-based approach enables FI to implement ongoing proactive judgement, identify risks and deploy countermeasures. In practice, financial institutions are required to assess both new and existing customers and apply enhanced due diligence procedures to customers with higher risks. Equally, varying levels of due diligence will be utilised depending on the nature of the risk profile and transaction.

The Measures stipulate the following directives for financial institutions:

  • Identify and verify the identity of customers through reliable and independent certification materials, data or information;
  • Understand the purpose and nature of the client’s business relationship and transaction, and obtain relevant information according to the risk situation;
  • In cases where there is a high risk of money laundering or terrorist financing, understand the source and use of clients’ funds, and take enhanced due diligence measures according to the risk situation;
  • During the business relationship, take continuous due diligence measures on the customers, review the status of the customers and their transactions, and confirm that the various services and transactions provided to the customers are consistent with the financial institutions’ understanding of the customers’ identity background, business needs, risk status and the source and use of their funds;
  • Identify and take reasonable measures to verify the beneficial owner of the customer if the customer is a legal person or an organization without legal personality.
What does it mean for companies in China?

With enhanced customer due diligence, companies should update anti-money laundering (‘AML’) policies and improve discipline, control, and responsibility across the workforce to decrease risks. Specifically, we recommend evaluating current AML practices, training staff, and updating company procedures. Failure to update current practices or establish a concrete framework for international companies could lead to white-collar investigations and reputation damages.

If you have questions or concerns related to AML or other related matters, please contact Horizons at +86 21 5356 3400 or

New Family Business Law

Regulates the benefits, incentives and work of family businesses, governance, management, transfer of shares and dispute resolution in order to enhance their role in the national economy.

On 10 October 2022, Decree-Law No. (37) on Family Businesses was issued and published in the Official Gazette and it will come into force three months after the date of publication, i.e. from 10/01/2023. The law has identified the family companies as any company established in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Law, and most of its shares are owned by persons belonging to the same family and are registered in the specific register prepared for this as a family business. As per this law, the Council of Ministers shall, upon the recommendation of the Minister of Economy, issue a decision specifying what is meant by one family.

Objectives of the Law

This Decree-Law aims to achieve the establishment of a comprehensive and accessible legal framework to regulate the ownership and governance of family businesses in the UAE, facilitate their transmission across generations, support the continuity of family businesses, enhance the role of the private sector in economic growth and community contribution in the UAE and provide appropriate mechanisms to resolve disputes associated with them and attribute their contribution to the UAE economy and competitiveness.

Types of servings and their transition

The Decree-Law also regulated how shares are transferred between members of the same family and between them and others from outside the family, and how each partner disposes of his share.

The shares were determined by two basic types according to the benefits granted to each type. The first type is called shares category (A) in which the partner has the right to vote in the general assembly of the company and receive his percentage of the profits.

The second type is called category (B) in which the partner is entitled to receive profits only without the right to vote in the general assembly. The decree authorized the memorandum of association to stipulate the conditions governing the conversion of shares (B) into shares (A) or vice versa and to be stipulated such as the passage of time or any other conditions, and it also allowed the  provision to divide shares (A) or (B) into categories according to the number of votes or profits allocated to them.

The Memorandum of Association may provide for other categories shares that differ in value, voting power, profits, priority rights and other rights or privileges, provided that the responsibility of the partner is to the extent commensurate with the rights and privileges allocated to each of those shares.

Bankruptcy and insolvency of family member shareholder

The Decree-Law also regulated the bankruptcy or insolvency of the partner in the family business and the right of any partner to have the right to priority purchase of the partner’s share at the price and within the period determined by the court hearing bankruptcy or insolvency.

The death of one of the partners was also organized, and the director of the company acts as the guardian of the shares of the  deceased partner, and supervises the procedures for transferring ownership to his heirs, each according to his legitimate share, and takes the procedures to amend the memorandum of association, after settling any rights or debts that may be related to these shares in favor of the family company or others, unless there is a provision in the Memorandum of Association to the contrary.

Family Business Management

It also organized the distribution of profits and how to manage the family company, the  appointment  and dismissal  of the director, his powers and responsibilities, and the organization of the governance of family affairs in relation to its relationship with the family company, through the establishment and organization of the work of councils and committees, such as the Family Association, the Family Council and the Family Office, which are specialized – each in the  field of tasks entrusted to him – to manage the affairs of the family and codify its relationship with the family business, including the education, training of its members and their work in the family company and its subsidiaries and entrepreneurship initiatives, and is concerned with the separation of ownership of the family company.

Family asset governance is about the ownership and governance of the family business, overseeing family investments, organizing charitable work and its own community contribution initiatives, and it contributes to the control of conflicts of interest and the reconciliation of views on disputes that may arise between family members and between them and partners.

Dispute Resolution

The Decree-Law also stipulated that the mechanism for settling disputes of family companies is to be established, whether in the memorandum of association the formation of a council of partners, family members or third parties, the purpose of which shall be to consider disputes that may arise between partners, between them and family members and between them and the family company, and to try to reconcile them.

Family Business Dispute Resolution Committee

The Decree-Law also provided the establishment of a committee in each Emirate called the “Committee for the Resolution of Family Business Disputes” by a decision of the Minister of Justice or the head of the local judicial authority, specifying its composition and the system of its work in the settlement of disputes of family businesses, chaired by a judge and assisted by two experienced and competent persons in the legal, financial, and family business management fields. The urgency it deems appropriate to maintain the continuity of the family business, prevent the interruption of its business or affect its reputation or financial position throughout the period of consideration of the dispute.

Benefits and incentives of family business companies

The Decree-Law on the benefits and incentives of the Most Successful Family Enterprises also decided, and made the Council of Ministers, upon the proposal of the Minister of Economy, and after coordination with the concerned stakeholders and the competent authorities, issue such decisions as it deems appropriate for the benefits and incentives granted to family owned companies registered in the Registry, and the controls, requirements related to these benefits and incentives, as well as the competent local authority, authorized for corporate affairs in each Emirate or Free Zone Authority, to grant any other benefits and incentives to family businesses in accordance with the controls and requirements issued in this regard.

Reda Hegazy  is a Partner  at Alsuwaidi & Company.

Reda is listed Legal Consultant in the Government of Dubai Legal Affairs Department, a Member of the DIAC 40, Young Practitioners Group in Dubai International Arbitration Centre (DIAC), a certified arbitrator and member of the International Commercial Arbitration Centre (ICAA) in Sharjah (Tahkeem).

LC Lawyers

LC Lawyers shortlisted for four ALB Hong Kong Law Awards 2022

We are pleased to announce that LC Lawyers LLP has been shortlisted as a “Finalist” in the following four categories at the ALB Hong Kong Law Awards 2022 presented by Asian Legal Business (ALB).  The winners will be announced at the awards ceremony on 9 September 2022.

  • Finance Deal of the Year
  • Rising Law Firm of the Year
  • Transactional Boutique Law Firm of the Year
  • Managing Partner of the Year – Rossana Chu

ALB’s 21st annual ALB Hong Kong Law Awards, the preeminent legal awards and ALB’s biggest and longest-running awards in Asia, pay tribute to the outstanding performance of private practitioners and in-house teams in the region. This is the third consecutive year in which the firm has been nominated in the ALB Hong Kong Law Awards for Rising Law Firm of the Year.

For more information about the finalists for ALB Hong Kong Law Awards 2022, please visit the website:

Firm Description:

An independent law firm in Hong Kong

LC Lawyers LLP is an independent law firm in Hong Kong providing legal services to financial institutions, corporate clients and private enterprises. Our law firm offers quality legal services to financial institutions, private enterprises and corporate clients in Hong Kong in a variety of areas including mergers & acquisitions (M&As of listed and private companies), takeovers, privatizations, corporate restructuring, corporate finance, HK IPOs, capital markets, legal due diligence, employee share-based incentive plans, private equity and venture capital investments, fund formation, asset management, wealth management, family trusts, family business, debt markets, debt restructuring (including re-financing arrangements, asset disposals and introduction of angel investors), bankruptcy, insolvency, dispute resolution (including mediation, arbitration and litigation), legal compliance and regulatory investigations (including bribery, corruption, fraud, market misconduct and money laundering), compliance training, legal & regulatory risk assessment, data privacy (including personal data, trade and state secret, data localization and data transfer laws), cybersecurity, employment law and labour law compliance, and talent management.

What our services can offer you:

At our law firm, together with other members of EY Law, we assist our corporate and private clients in Hong Kong with legal technologies. Our legal advice, combined with innovative technology-driven services, empowers process innovation and allows better control over legal costs. We provide services in contract lifecycle management (including contract creation, data abstraction and analysis, template design and obligations management), regulatory mapping and compliance monitoring, managed review and functional analysis (including data analysis, document redaction, audio and video file reviews and eDiscovery) and entity compliance and governance.

Whether you represent a corporate client or a private enterprise, as a law firm based in Hong Kong we can provide you with sound strategic advice, commercial solutions as well as detailed guidance that you need to navigate the increasingly complex legal environment of the ever-changing global economy.